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State Supervisor of School Libraries, Minnesota Department 

of Education, 1911-1917; Supervisor of Smaller 

Branches and High School Libraries, Cleveland 

Public Library, 1918-1920, Librarian, 

Lincoln Library, Springfield, III. 

Third Edition Revised 






Published June, 1919 

Second Edition December, 1920 

Third Edition July, 1922 

Printed in U. S. A. 


This manual is the 3d revised edition of "School library man- 
agement," published by the Minnesota Department of education, 
in 1917. 

It is an attempt to state the problem of the library in the 
school, particularly the smaller one, and to offer practical sug- 
gestions as to its equipment, organization and administration and 
to provide a reference aid for simple library methods for school 

Suggestions from many sources have been incorporated; 
especially from articles written by Miss Hall of Girls' high 
school, Brooklyn (references marked M. E. H.) ; from Mr. Cer- 
tain's Standardization report, and from "School libraries", pub- 
lished by the Library Bureau. 

Acknowledgment is also made to Mr. F. K. Walter, Libra- 
rian of the University of Minnesota; to Miss Miller and Mr. 
Libbey, of the Library Bureau, Chicago; Miss Pritchard, of the 
Detroit College of education, for help in the second revision, and 
to the High school librarians of Cleveland, and to Miss Har- 
rington and Miss Keeler of Cleveland for suggestions re- 
garding elementary school libraries. 


March, 1922. 



PART i. Library in the school I 

Libraries in education I 

State policies 2 

Standards 3 

School library room 5 

Book selection 14 

Book buying and ordering 22 

PART II. Organization 25 

Routine 26 

Supplies 27 

Binding and mending 33-37 

Classification 44 

Accessioning 58 

Charging system 68 

Shelf listing 76 

Cataloging 81 

PART III. Administration 105 

Service 106 

Discipline 1 1 1 

Use of library 115 

Reports 117 

Teaching the use 119 

INDEX , 149 



The modern school library meets the teaching work of the 
school at all points, and helps to carry it on, and is a definite 
part of the modern educational program. 

The library as an educational factor in the school, and 
specialization in the public libraries, of the work with schools 
has developed rapidly in recent years. 

Through the work and zeal of individuals in school library 
work, the attention and interest of educators has been enlisted. 
Committees composed of teachers and librarians have collected 
material covering varied phases of the work and have compiled 
reports which have been of inestimable value in crystallizing 
opinion and in presenting not only a program for work but also 
definite suggestions for its fulfillment. 

Libraries in Education 

(Report of the N. E. A. Library Committee; presented at the 
Des Moines meeting 1921. Adopted by the N. E. A. as a whole: 
the A. L. A. and other school and library organizations.) 

1 All pupils in both elementary and secondary schools should 

have ready access to books to the end that they may be 

a to love to read that which is worth while 

b to supplement their school studies by the use of books 

other than textbooks 

c to use reference books easily and effectively 
d to use intelligently both the school library and the pub- 
lic library 

2 Every secondary school should have a trained librarian and 

every elementary school should have trained library service. 

3 Trained librarians should have the same status as teachers 

or heads of departments of equal training and experience. 


4 Every school that provides training for teachers should re- 

quire a course in the use of books and libraries, and a 
course on the best literature for children. 

5 Every state should provide for the supervision of school 

libraries and for the certification of school librarians. 

6 The public library should be recognized as a necessary part 

of public instruction, and should be as liberally supported 
by tax as are the public schools, and for the same reasons, 

7 The school system that does not make liberal provision for 

training in the use of libraries, fails to do its full duty in 
the way of revealing to all future citizens the opportunity 
to know and to use the resources of the public library as a 
means of education. 

Copies may be secured from Mr. Sherman Williams, Pres., 
Library Dept., N. E. A. State Library, New York. 

State Policies 

The library being an essential for carrying out the modern 
educational program, it must, of necessity, be a part of the state 
educational scheme. The majority of the states, have for years 
carried laws regarding the school library. 

The legislation has dealt chiefly with the elementary and 
rural school, and provision for the purchase of new books. 

A digest of the laws, prepared by Alice B. Long was pub- 
lished in the Wilson Bulletin (H. W. Wilson co. N.Y.) Sep- 
tember, 1920. 

This Bulletin gives also the New standards in the various 
states, grouped according to the six requisites of standard or- 
ganization of the Certain report, and a list of the State-school 
library book lists is included. 

New standards are evidenced in the State high school board 
rules of many states, in definite requirements as to equipment of 
the High school library, and for service. 

These rules have largely come about through the adoption 
of the Certain report by regional associations of Colleges and 
Secondary schools. 

Many high schools have gone much further than state re- 
quirements in the establishment and maintenance of libraries 
and in the employment of trained librarians. 

State school library lists, well selected, and arranged have 


been issued by many states, since the pioneer lists of Oregon 
set a high standard. 

State supervision of school libraries by a trained and ex- 
perienced person is generally recognized as a necessity to bring 
the school libraries of a state into the usefulness of which they 
are capable. 


This officer should be of training, ability and rank with the 
other school supervisors. 

The supervisor has an advisory relationship to all the, public- 
school-libraries of the state; collects information and statistics 
concerning them; prepares lists of books for rural, elementary 
and high school libraries ; gives advice on furniture, equipment 
of school library rooms, in the preparation of library budgets; 
in methods of work; assists in the preparation of outlines for 
instruction in the use of books for rural, elementary and high 
schools ; of courses of instruction given to teachers ; and with 
local and state public library workers, helps to bring all library 
resources to bear on the education of the young people of the 

School Library Standards 

The most important general statement of the essentials of 
school library equipment is found in the Report on standards of 
organization and equipment for schools of different sizes, pre- 
pared for the Commission on unit courses and curricula of the 
North Central association of colleges and secondary schools, by 
C. C. Certain of Detroit. 

This report discusses in detail, the features of school library 
organization and administration, and suggests a practical work- 
ing standard for junior high schools and senior high schools 
of varying sizes, in Housing and equipment ; the Librarian ; 
Scientific selection and care of books ; Instruction in the use of 
books and libraries ; Annual appropriation, and a general state- 
ment regarding State supervision of school libraries. 

The report has been widely adopted, and is accepted as the 
attainable standard. 

Every school and every public library should have a copy of 
this report. 


It is obtainable through the A. L. A. pub. bd., 78 E. Washing- 
ton st., Chicago. 400. 

The Modern School and the Library 

The modern school includes a modern library as an integral 
part of the equipment because of the direct and tangible service 
it renders in the training of the pupils. 

It strengthens school work by furnishing collateral material 
for all subjects taught. 

It provides for interests outside the curriculum and for the 
exceptional child, thus aiding in the acceleration work. 

It teaches how to use books easily and effectively, pointing 
the way to self education after school days. 

It helps greatly in the preparation for college and in making 
the transition from the school to the college method of study. 

It tends to form a habit of reading that which is worth while, 
thus creating a recreational resource and intelligence in citizen- 

The modern school library, to accomplish these ends, is as 
carefully planned for and equipped as any department in the 
school, and with a view to serving all departments. 

It is a place for work, not a study hall, a text book room, nor 
a lounging place. 

It must be a place devoted to the use of library books, prac- 
tical as to working details but distinctly a place of order, re- 
finement, and attractiveness. 

For this library the essentials are: Adequate appropriation, 
carefully planned room and equipment; well selected books; or- 
ganization ; trained service. 

School Library Equipment 

The library in the school has been retarded in its develop- 
ment because it has not always shared in the scientific planning 
and management given to other departments in the schools. It 
is still not fully understood that there are standards for library 
equipment and organization that have been tested for usefulness 
and economy and that much time, money and effort may be 
saved by accepting plans and systems tried and approved rather 
than inventing new ones. 


School Library Room 

The library in the school supplements the work of every de- 
partment and should serve every pupil in the school. It should 
be planned thoughtfully and generously, to give fullest service. 


The uses which the library may serve will influence the loca- 
tion of the room, but it must always be placed with reference to 
convenience of access. Practically all school libraries in small 
towns serve the grades as well as the high school. 

If it is for High school purposes only it has been found that 
the most satisfactory location for a library is on the second 
floor in a central position in the building, accessible to teachers 
and students, and near the study room, but separate from it. 


Care should be taken that the library is not located in the 
front of the building if the fagade carries ornamental columns 
which may throw heavy shadows into the room during part 
of the day. A principal requirement in a library is plenty of 
light and the light should come from one side, preferably north 
or east. 

The entrance to the library should be direct from the corridor 
in the center of the long inside wall if possible: If additional 
doors opening into the corridor are necessary, they should be 
used only as emergency exits. 

The library classroom should be located adjoining the library 
room at one end, the librarian's work and file room, if one is 
provided, at the other end. 

If a direct system of radiation is used, radiators should be 
located under the windows. The walls between the windows 
and doorways should be kept as clear as possible, of all radiators 
and pipes of every description, electric switches, ventilators, 
thermostats, etc. If thermostats and electric switches must 
be located on the wall, they should be placed as near as possible 
to the door or window trim so as not to break up the wall space 
available for shelving. Every inch of wall space below a point 7 
feet from the floor is available book space, and should be con- 
served, with as few exceptions as possible. It is wise to onpjt 
from the walls, chair rails, wainscoting, and baseboards. The 


walls can then be plastered to the floor, arid after the book- 
shelving is set in place, the space between the ends of the book- 
shelving and door trim can be equipped with baseboards, etc. If 
it is necessary for vertical pipes to pass through the rooms, they 
should be located in the corners of the room, where the mitered 
wall book shelving allows sufficient space for them. In this way, 
the available book space is not encroached upon. 


Care should be taken in the planning, to secure plenty of nat- 
ural light for both the shelves and the reading tables. The 
present type of school buildings, with large windows on one side 
only, often makes it necessary to place most of the shelving on 
the wall opposite the windows. If alcove shelving is used, it 
should be so placed. The cases should never be extended into 
the room in such a way as to shut off the light. Careful provi- 
sion must be made for artificial light, particularly when the room 
is to be used in the evening. Ceiling lights are preferable to 
table lights, and the direct-indirect system is generally conceded 
to give the most perfect light. 

SIZE: The first size standard for an adequate library room is 
based on present school attendance and should allow for probable 
growth. The library perhaps more than any room in the school 
should be equipped for permanence. 

The minimum for a small high school, or school including 
both the upper grades and the High school should be a room the 
size of an average classroom. 

In larger schools it should accomodate at one full period 
from 6-10 percent of the total daily attendance of the school 
seated at tables, with sufficient space between, and between 
tables and chairs, to permit freedom in moving about. Tables 
(3ft x 5ft) should be arranged in rows so that the end of the 
table is parallel to the long exterior wall, that the greatest 
benefit may be derived from light entering the room from the 
windows. There should be a clear space of from four to five 
feet between tables and between tables and cases. In smaller 
schools, there should be two such rows of tables, while larger 
schools require three. Thus for a small school, the width of. 
the room should be twenty-five feet. 



The other element of size is wall space to accomodate shelv- 
ing for all the library books owned by the school and to allow 
for growth, a minimum of 10 books per pupil being the stand- 
ard for the High school, and 3-5 for the Elementary school. 

Open shelving should be provided, having all books in view 
and within reach. Shelving should be built around the walls 
and under the windows, if these are sufficiently high. Specifica- 
tions for shelving and for tables and chairs given here are 
adapted from Marvin Small library buildings (A. L. A. pub. 
bd., Chicago), and from School libraries, Library Bureau, 

Plain wood wall shelving is the best for this purpose. Li- 
brary shelving must be built according to standard measure- 
ments, and the shelves should be adjustable in height. Fixed 
shelves either waste space or make it difficult to arrange books 
of various sizes in the proper order. Uprights, base, and top 
should be finished flush, with no projections on the front edges 
on which books may catch. A projecting base becomes very 
unsightly. Shelves need not be backed excepting for the sake 
of appearance. 

Uprights between shelves must be solid. The adjustment for 
the shelves must be so designed that all parts between the 
shelves will be flush with the surface of the upright, without 
projecting members to wear or mar the books. 

The usual faults of shelving are : making the shelves too 
long so that they sag with the weight of the books, making 
it too high so that the upper shelves are not easily reached, 
having projections against which the books catch, and having 
poor shelf supports. 

The usual height for shelving is approximately 7', which 
allows for seven shelf spaces. Each section or space between 
uprights should be as near 36" wide as possible. No section 
for books should be over 42" wide, as the shelves would sag. 
Uprights should be solid, otherwise the books will slide through. 
Shelving is ordinarily made of i" to 154" thick lumber. 

If shelves are fixed, a space of 10" in the clear should be 
allowed between all shelves. The base should be from 4" to 6" 
in height, and the top 2" to 5". The depth of shelving is ordi- 
narily 8" excepting for some reference books, where 9" or 


10" is necessary. Where the shelves are adjustable the stand- 
ard height is 6' 10". 

The best shelf supports are good sized threaded metal pins, 
fitting into a double row of holes in the uprights. The under 
side of the shelves should be grooved to fit over the pins. The 
holes in the uprights should be bored i" apart in height, and 
care must be taken to have the holes in all uprights bored to 
exactly the same measurements, so that the shelves will be per- 
fectly level. 

Where no workroom is provided, supply cupboards should 
be built into the shelving. 


To determine the shelving capacity, eight books are counted 
to the running foot. One-third of each shelf should remain 
vacant, to avoid constant shifting of books as additions are 
made. Cases built seven shelves high, allow for fifty-six vol- 
umes to the foot for the wall shelving. 

Where wall space is limited and the room is sufficiently wide, 
short doublefaced stacks not more than thirty-six inches long, 
may be built from the wall shelving at intervals of four feet, 
thus making alcoves. If there is any space under the windows 
not needed for radiation, shelves may be placed there for refer- 
ence books, allowing six inch base, two shelves one inch thick 
and not more than nine inches deep. The top of such a case 
should be flush with the window sill and be made into a shelf to 
rest the book upon while consulting it. 

Shelving near the desk is needed for many purposes, especially 
if the 'librarian's desk is of commercial type, or not sufficiently 
provided with shelves. 

Books ordered by teachers, books on temporary reserve, new 
books in process of preparation, files of special lists, books 
coming from or being returned to the Public library must be 
provided for, temporarily, near the desk. 


To provide the quiet needed for study, the floor should be 
covered with cork carpet or battleship linoleum. 



A laboratory requires special furniture, as does also the 
drawing room and the commercial department. The library is 
a department for a definite purpose and needs suitable and dur- 
able furniture no less. Library furniture designed to meet the 
requirements of library work is available. This should be pur- 
chased that the work of this department may be facilitated, 
not hampered by makeshift equipment. 

Essentials in furniture are reading tables and chairs, table or 
charging desk for the librarian, cabinet and stand for the card 
catalog, magazine rack, vertical file and bulletin boards. 

TABLES: The unit of table space required for a student in a 
school library is approximately thirty inches. A table 3x5 feet 
and thirty inches high is the ideal size. It conveniently accom- 
modates six readers, two on each side and one more at each 
end. A table of this size with a maximum of six students is con- 
venient for work and makes supervision easy. 

The table must be plain and substantial, and without drawers. 
Foot boards should be omitted, and the legs bolted to give rigid- 
ity. There should be no finish around the edge of the top. 

Tables longer than five feet are objectionable. They permit 
of larger groups, thereby encouraging conversation and restless- 
ness. The 3x5 size permits of convenient aisles and allows free 
use of the room. It is particularly convenient for rearrange- 
ment into "U" or "T" shape forms for the grouping of a class 
using illustrative material. 

Round tables add to the appearance of the room and are good 
for quiet study. They should not be more than four feet in 
diameter. If tables for younger children are needed, they may 
be the same size as the others except the height should be 
twenty-six inches or twenty-eight inches with chairs sixteen or 
seventeen inches from the floor with back of seat corresponding, 
not large chairs cut down. 

CHAIRS : These should be light but strong and without arms. 
Bent wood chairs are light, and therefore easy to move, but tip 
and break easily and they are not especially comfortable. 

Solid chairs with seat of saddle type and properly constructed 
back are more expensive, but are much more satisfactory in 



comfort and durability. If the floor is not covered with cork 
carpet, all chairs should have rubber tips to lessen the noise. 


Every school library should have a well-equipped flat top 
library desk for the librarian's use in the transaction of the li- 
brary business. 

The top should be large enough to permit the charging and 
discharging of books, the registration of borrowers and the 
filing of book cards (5x3-01.) in a sunken book card tray, or in 
a tray on top of the desk. 

The space inside the desk should be divided into drawers 
conveniently arranged for cash drawer with money tray; draw- 
ers to hold card supplies and forms; and for registration card 
file (cards 3x5) ; compartments for accession book (loxg-in.) 
and registration book should also be provided and shelves for 
temporary storage of reserve books and returned books. 

The usual height for a low desk at which the librarian sits 
in a chair of ordinary height is 325^ inches. 

For the smaller school the straight type is used. The "U" 
shaped desk used in the Girls' high school, Brooklyn, is thirty- 
two inches high, eighty- four inches wide, eighty-three inches 
deep. It groups all the materials within easy reach, so that one 
person can do the various types of work comfortably in normal 
times and it is sufficiently large to admit of an assistant at the 
rush time. 

The wing type charging desk is desirable for large schools if 
the shape of the "U" desk is not suited to the room. This is 
commonly thirty-nine inches high and requires a high base swivel 


It is desirable to place the charging desk near enough to the 
central door to command the entrance and exit, and this brings 
it often in the center of the room. 

A shelf across the entrance to the desk if of the "U" shape, 
closes the desk and gives additional working space for charging, 

With the more open type a low free standing book shelf 
near the end is a convenience. 



As soon as a card shelf list or card catalog is made, a case 
must be provided. The drawers in these cases must be of 
standard size, to accommodate standard library cards. The 
drawers must be fitted with round rods. A stand must be pro- 
vided for the catalog case. 

Library catalog cases should be provided. Library of Con- 
gress and Indexer cards are printed on cards cut to centimeter 
measurements, as are also the plain catalog cards. 

The commercial 3x5 card cases are not made in measure- 
ments to correspond and have frequently ill-fitting or wrongly 
placed rods. 


These are sometimes made by the manual training depart- 
ment. The usual dimensions are five feet, two inches high, three 
feet six inches wide, one foot eight inches deep. This will 
accomodate about thirty magazines. 

Blue print should be obtained from a public library before 
the work is attempted. 

Racks which are of proper size to take care of a limited 
number of current magazines, may be bought of library supply 

Shelving may be used for housing periodicals when a 
greater capacity is needed. Shelves should be twelve inches 
deep, three inches apart and the sections may be made as long 
as four and one-half feet if shelving of one and one-eighth 
inch width is used to prevent sagging. 

This shelving can be any height desired to fit in space under 
windows. If on the wall it should be the same height as book 


These are conveniently arranged for the care of atlases, 
folios and large books which must lie flat. These have sliding 
shelves and the top is made sloping to accomodate the diction- 



Space must be allowed for proper placing of bulletin boards. 
If there are pillars in the room they may be placed on them. 
They are usually made of cork carpet framed. A large one 
should be provided for the daily clipped newspaper. 


A sloping-top case with or without shelves below is very 
desirable for the display of a group of books, for a particular 
subject or in special bindings. The bulletin board above permits 
of lists or notices regarding them. 


To properly care for the small pamphlets, bulletins, un framed 
pictures and clippings so much used in high schools, the vertical 
file is necessary. These are cases containing from 2 to 4 draw- 
ers. The letter size is sometimes used but for both pamphlets 
and pictures the legal size is better. Cases may be bought which 
provide drawers for pictures combined with small drawers for 
postal cards and trays for lantern slides. 

Care should be taken in purchasing a case to secure one with 
drawers mounted on roller bearing extension slides. Drawers 
filled with pamphlets and pictures are heavy, and are prac- 
tically useless unless they slide easily. 

Manual training departments attempting to make file cases 
will find it necessary to make special study of the slides and 
purchase special roller attachments. 


A book truck is desirable in a small library and indispensable 
in a large one. 

For effective work additional equipment is needed as follows : 
celluloid holders for handling pictures, files for lantern slides, 
post cards, and victrola records, a cutting machine, pamphlet 
cases, book supports, shelf markers. 


Library furniture and library supplies have been standardized 
to meet the particular needs of library work. There are special 


forms for labels, accession books, record sheets, book pockets 
and cards. Correct charging trays, book supports, ink for mark- 
ing books, shelf label holders, magazine holders, and card catalog 
cases are obtainable. These should be purchased for library use 
instead of business forms and files. 


Essentials for a good school library room: 
Room of adequate size, conveniently located. 
Good light. 

Shelving: Open wall shelving. 
Floor covering. 

Furniture : 1 

Reading tables to seat an average class. 

Magazine rack. 
Desk for librarian. 
Vertical file. 

Card catalog case and stand. 
Bulletin boards. 
Charging tray. 
Pamphlet boxes. 

In the suggestions for Room and equipment "School libraries" by 
the Library Bureau (Boston, New York, and Chicago) has been freely 
drawn upon. 


The "New" high school library has a library classroom, ad- 
joining the main reading room where a lantern and bulletin 
boards make the use of pictures and slides possible with the 
least inconvenience, as all the material is at hand in the li- 
brary (M. E. H.). 

This room is fitted with tablet arm chairs which can be 
moved, and is equipped with dark shades at the windows for 
darkening the room, white wall curtain for showing pictures, 
reflectoscope, Victrola, and cases for holding slides, postcards, 
Victrola records, etc. 

A small platform or stage is useful. Wall cases for mapis 
may also be installed in this room. 



Where the school has the only library in the town and must 
give public library service also, or when a public library branch, 
open to, the public, is contemplated, the only feasible location is 
the first floor. 

For this use, double space or two rooms thrown together 
should be provided, with separate room for children if possible. 
This is 4 necessary to accommodate the different types of readers 
and also* for proper arrangement of the books. 

At least during part of the day, the room and the services of 
the librarian should be given over wholly to work with the stu- 
dents in the school. 

Public library collections of fiction are often unsuited for 
school children and should be shelved as a separate collection. 
More reading table space is also needed where the school 
library serves as a town library. 

It must have an outside entrance as well as one from the 
school. With the library in the front of the building, an en- 
trance may be placed in the vestibule between outer and inner 
main entrance doors, and should be so arranged that it may 
be shut off from the rest of the building for evening and sum- 
mer use. When on the side, or in remodeling an old build- 
ing, one window may be converted into a door, and outside 
vestibule and steps added. 


Heat is a practical consideration in planning for public li- 
brary service in the school house. 

In some places the heating system is so arranged that the 
library is heated with exhaust steam, or it is heated by the 
pipes leading to the greenhouse so that no additional heat is 
required for evening service. If such service is contemplated, 
separately controlled heat mains should be provided when the 
heating system is installed. 

Book Selection 

The selection of books is of first importance in school library 

On the increased use of books and improvement in the 


quality of reading the whole success of the library as a part of 
the educational work of the school, depends. 

Indiscriminate purchase of books is one of the most wasteful 
practices in the schools. The school libraries are over-crowded 
with expensive sets, subscription books, obsolete books of teach- 
ing methods, books too difficult for the students, and very cheap 
editions with bad print and paper. In the same schools, the 
books actually needed are often lacking. 

As in the selection of any equipment, or tools, the selection 
of books must be based upon the purpose for which the books 
are to be used, and thorough knowledge of books. No book 
should be bought for any school library without a definite idea 
in mind that it will be of immediate use in connection with some 
study, or for the help of some individual. 


1. Books should be chosen which have a direct bearing on all 
the subjects taught in the school, including some on agriculture, 
hygiene, nature study and science, a complete United States his- 
tory for reference use, modern history, some one-volume collec- 
tions of literature (not sets), books about children's reading and 
story telling, handbooks of information, atlases and books of 
simple reference. Books on domestic science, music, picture 
study, should also be included. 

2. Books must be selected to train in habits of observation, 
to aid in identifying the stars, birds, trees, wild flowers and wild 
life in all forms. 

3. Some books should be chosen for the library which will 
help in planning for school activities; boys' and girls' clubs, 
school entertainments, warm lunches, social center work, de- 
bating societies. 

4. The library should include those books which are gener- 
ally accepted as the best of the world's literature, and which 
should be placed in the way of every child while young. Some 
of these are : Alcott, Little Women ; Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress ; 
Baldwin, Story of Siegfried; Carroll, Alice in Wonderland; 
Andersen, Fairy tales ; Hawthorne, Wonder book ; Harris, Uncle 
Remus; Kipling, Jungle book; Lamb, Tales from Shakespeare; 


Macleod, Book of King Arthur; Mother Goose; Stevenson, 
Child's Garden of Verses; Treasure Island. There are many 
others which should be included. 

5. In selecting stories, those should be chosen which are 
strong in human interest, but which preserve the right ideals of 
conduct and achievement. 

6. Interesting biography should be provided for all the 
grades, to follow the reading of the stories of imaginary people, 
books which will inspire, as well as those which will give interest 
to the study of history. 

7. Books should be included to meet the children's interests 
or to develop talents ; books of games, sports, drawing, occupa- 
tions, such as simple books of sewing and basketry for the girls ; 
mechanics, electricity and wood working for the boys ; also books 
on vocations for older boys and girls. 

8. The books should always be chosen with the pupils in 
mind, selecting those which are easily within their comprehen- 
sion, including something for all ages and interests. 

9. Only those should be bought which are wholesome in tone ; 
are written in good English, and which contain enough in- 
formation, beauty or enjoyment to make them worth while. No 
books should be bought because they are harmless, but all be- 
cause they will contribute to the life and work of the school. 

10. Books should be bought in as good editions as can be 
afforded. An attractive looking book will be read and enjoyed, 
while a book in small type, poor paper and dingy cover will not. 

In all collections, standardization should be the chief aim. 
New books for younger children are not especially desirable. 
The books that have stood the test of time, and are real liter- 
ature, should be provided first. Lists of such books may be ob- 
tained free, or at little cost from the larger public libraries and 
from state library commissions. 


Books should be chosen to be used in connection with every 
subject taught. The library is not for the History and English 
departments alone, but every subject should be enriched. 

The history department should be provided with carefully 
selected books of biography and history, from all the periods 


of history taught in the school. This would include a group of 
the biographies, histories and personal accounts, of permanent 
value, from the World war. Biography should be plentifully 
supplied for all departments. 

Books must be included which will strengthen civic and 
social ideals, foster a feeling for America as well as the books 
to give a knowledge of other countries and a sympathy for the 
new American from foreign lands. 

For the home reading for English, the library should pro- 
vide not only the standard fiction, but also interesting books 
of varied appeal ; vital biographies, travel and adventure : books 
to direct the imagination ; poetry old and modern, plays, essays 
on familiar subjects, etc. 

In connection with vocational guidance, books of ethics, the 
trades and professions, education and training, and biographies 
of modern people must be furnished. 

Science in readable form and with modern application, books 
of art in all its forms, music, athletics and sports, books of handi- 
crafts, all must be represented. 

Every book in the library should pass the quality test, i.e. : 
Truth, good English, wholesome ideas, high moral tone, readable- 
ness, vitality. Care should be taken to secure the best on each 

A fine edition collection should be built up in every library as 
rapidly as funds will permit. These books serve to interest stu- 
dents in classics, in owning books, and the teachers of various 
subjects find them useful for typography, drawing, color, cos- 
tume, and for the artist's interpretation of literature. 


To assist schools in the selection of good and useful books, 
library lists for schools are provided in several states. A 
statement regarding such lists is given in the Wilson Bulletin, 
September 1920. (H. W. Wilson Co. New York)" 

These lists are carefully prepared to meet as far as possible 
the needs of all the schools in the state and to give the teachers 
a reliable guide to books that have been tried with young people, 
and approved by librarians and teachers. 

Generally speaking, they all include many of the same titles, 
with additions to meet local needs. Library lists vary in 


arrangement, some grouping by grade, roughly by subject or 
classification number according to library usage. 

The advantage of a graded list is that an inexperienced 
teacher finds ready help in selecting books for her classes. Since 
the use of a book in a certain grade varies according to the read- 
ing facility of the child, a graded list must repeat the same titles 
in different grades. 

A classed list serves as a guide to the arrangement of books 
on the shelves and groups books by subject. Many of the classed 
lists also indicate grades for the books. 

Most state school library lists attempt to cite the best cheap 
editions. The public library "Best" lists give the best editions 
regardless of cost. 

If not provided by the state, schools should obtain from the 
State Library commission, or largest public library one or more 
standard lists to be used as guides in purchase and arrangement. 

Large schools with unlimited library funds will find The 
Booklist (A. L. A. pub bd., 78 E. Washington St., Chicago, 
$1.50 per year), of value for new books and for the list of Gov- 
ernment documents useful to schools, which is a quarterly 
feature, and for new books also, the Standard Catalog Bimonthly 
(H. W. Wilson co., New York). 

Other aids in Book selection for the larger high school are : 
Horton. Out of door books. Women's industrial and educational 
union, Boston; National council of teachers of English Report 
of the committee on home reading. English Journal, Chicago; 
Newark, (NJ.) Public library. Reading for pleasure and 
profit ; Pierce, Catalog of literature for advisers of young women 
and girls. H. W. Wilson co., New York; Portland, (Ore.) 
Library association. High school supplementary reading; Rath- 
bone. Viewpoints in travel A. L. A. pub. bd., Chicago ; and Stand- 
ard catalog Biography section; Standard catalog Sociology 
section. H. W. Wilson co., New York. 

Economical book selection is not possible until the library is 
put in order and classified. After this work is done, the shelves 
or the shelf list will show where the collection is weak. 

Teachers should be asked to check the school lists for books 
to be added for the subjects in which they are most interested. 
Lists of books in addition to those on the school lists should be 
carefully considered and the bociks compared before purchase. 


If a teacher is not interested in building up the library side of 
her work, the teacher-librarian or the superintendent should 
select books so that all subjects will be represented in the library. 
Jf all the books wished cannot be purchased at once, an order 
file is kept, as suggestive for later purchases. 

Complete works of authors should be avoided. There are 
very few authors of whose writings any library would want all. 
The titles wanted, if bought separately, could be replaced at 
any time, as they could not be if part of a set. 


The size of the library and its needs will determine whether 
books are bought in the cheapest editions or in the best. None 
should be bought that are not on good paper, with clear print and 
attractive in appearance. A school would not usually purchase 
a finely illustrated edition unless the same book was in the library 
in a cheap edition for home use. 


In school library lists, this term is used to indicate that the 
binding has been strengthened. Such books more than pay for 
the extra cost in their wearing qualities. They should be pur- 
chased whenever available. Some librarians have all their new 
books reinforced before using. 

Any new books will be reinforced by the H. R. Huntting co., 
Springfield, Mass., The Library book house, Springfield, Mass., 
or Chivers bindery, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Reference Books 

General reference books must be selected with care, consider- 
ing both subject-matter and price. With a well-balanced library, 
i.e., one in which all subjects are represented, there is less need 
for general reference books. 


Encyclopedias must be of first quality, modern in subject- 
matter and treatment, and of recent date. If a great saving can 
be effected in the purchase of an older edition of the best 


encyclopedia, schools may find it worth while to purchase it and 
the year books which supplement it. 

Encyclopedias should not be purchased without comparison 
with other sets and verifications of prices. 


If the school is limited in book funds, it is better to buy an 
inexpensive atlas and replace frequently than to spend much 
money for a large atlas. 


The newspaper hand books such as the World almanac offer 
a great amount of statistical and miscellaneous information at 
very low prices. Such books should be replaced annually. 

A list of especially valuable reference books will be found in 
all the state school library lists. 


Magazines are helpful in the work of the school library. The 
cheap, sensational magazines which would admit to the library 
stories which would be rejected in book form should be carefully 
avoided. Magazines which are of current interest, and which are 
valuable for debate work and general reference use, and worth 
binding as a permanent part of the library should be bought 
freely, giving preference to those which are indexed. 

A periodical index is necessary to make all the material in 
the magazines available. The Readers' guide to periodical litera- 
ture, H. W. Wilson Co., 958-64 University ave., New York, is 
invaluable in the use of magazines, either current "or bound. It 
is issued monthly, and cumulates. 

Schools with large agricultural departments will need the 
Agricultural index (10 numbers per year, cumulative), H. W. 
Wilson Co., New York. 

This indexes scientific and technical journals on agriculture, 
horticulture, forestry, and allied subjects; popular farm journals, 
bulletins, publications of societies and organizations. 

For either index, write the firm for prices, giving the list of 
magazines for which the school subscribes. 



*Boys' life. Boy scouts of America, New York 
*Current events (weekly) Current events, Chicago 
*Littlefolks. Casino co., Salem, Mass. 

St. Nicholas. Century co., New York 

* Youths' companion (weekly). Youths' companion, Boston 
*Wohelo. Camp fire girls, New York 


American city. (Town & county ed) New York 
*American cookery. Boston 

Atlantic monthly. Boston 

Current history. New York Times 

Current opinion. New York 

Good housekeeping. New York 

Harper's magazine. New York 

Independent. New York 

Industrial arts magazine. Milwaukee 

International studio. New York 

Literary digest. New York 

Mentor. New York 
*Musical America. New York 

National geographic magazine. Washington, D.C. 

New Republic. New York 

Outlook. New York 
*Popular mechanics. Chicago 
*Popular science monthly. New York 

Scientific American. New York 

Scribner's magazine. New York 

Survey. New York 

World's work. New York 


Education. Boston 

Educational review. Columbia univ. 

Elementary school journal. Univ. of Chicago 
fEnglish journal. Univ. of Chicago 
^Historical outlook. Philadelphia 
tjournal of geography. New York 


tKindergarten-Primary magazine. Manistee, Mich. 
fNature study review. Ithaca, N.Y. 

School and society. New York 
*School arts. Worcester, Mass. 

School review. Univ. of Chicago 

School science and methematics. Chicago 

Science. New York 

Teachers college record. Columbia univ. 

*Not indexed in Readers' Guide. 

tlndexed in Readers' Guide Supplement. 

Prices may be obtained from the publisher or a periodical agency. 

Book Buying and Ordering 

Book buying practice varies. As before the war, buying 
through the book dealer seems the most economical of time 
and money. In states having a school list, there is usually a 
contract dealer from whom the books must be purchased, the 
contract having been let to the lowest bidder on the list as a 
whole. Through the contract dealer one is assured of getting 
the edition specified which is not always the case in the open 
market, or through a purchasing agent. 

In large schools, where all supplies are purchased through a 
purchasing department, the librarian should have a fund from 
which to purchase new books needed in response to a call that 
could not be foreseen, or books which may become available at 
special prices. 

Books sold only through agents, usually comprising complete 
works of authors, sets of encyclopedias, and subscription books, 
are the most expensive and usually the least useful books that 
can be bought. 

Practically all books sold by agents may be obtained at greatly 
reduced price from a reliable dealer in second-hand books and 

Names and addresses of dealers in remainders may be ob- 
tained of the librarian of the public library or the State Li- 
brary Commission. 

Prices have decreased somewhat since the war, but an aver- 
age estimate of one dollar for lower grade books and one dol- 
lar fifty to two dollars for Upper grade and High school books 
is conservative. 



As requests for books, which are of special value and which 
are not in the library are received, order cards are made. 

Order cards may be bought, or blank cards filled out to give 
the following information: 

Class No. 

Author's surname, followed by Initials 

Date ordered 



Vols. Date 


Edition Publisher Price 


Recommended by 

Approved by 

Reviewed In 

L. C. eard No. 

Is It In A. L. A. Catalog or A. L. A. Book list? 

These cards are filed by author or grouped by publisher. The 
latter arrangement is most convenient when book purchases are 
made through the visiting representatives of publishing houses. 

When purchases can be made, this list should be consulted 


The discount which may be obtained by a school varies. The 
dealer who handles a large stock is able to give a better discount 
than the local merchant who orders through another dealer. All 
regular dealers give some discount to schools. 

Some of the best cheap editions are the Home university li- 
brary, and the reprint editions : Everyman's library and Gros- 
set and Dunlap reprints. 

The Home university library includes new books on a great 
variety of subjects. They are small in size, light to handle, have 
fair paper and print, and are by authoritative writers. 


Everyman's library consists of reprints of a large number of 
the classics of literature. The volumes are small and attractive 
in appearance. The margins are narrow and the books cannot 
be rebound and must, therefore, be purchased in library binding. 
The print varies in size and in very long books is too small to 
be useful. 

Grosset reprints are chiefly of fiction. They are reprints from 
the original plates, and so retain the appearance of the original 
edition. The plates are rented by this company from the original 
publisher for a limited number of copies. When this number has 
been printed the plates are returned and the book is only obtain- 
able at the original price. 


Organizing a school library quickly and accurately requires 
a knowledge of library methods which comes from thorough 
training and library experience. 

The most advantageous procedure is to get the librarian first. 
With a given amount of money to be expended, she would assist 
in the preparation of a budget, proportioning it to the needs. 
Then, in consultation with the principal and teachers and the 
various supervisors, the titles would be selected and ordered. 

Decision as to the records needed for the particular school 
would be made before the technical work was begun. All short 
cuts which would produce the maximum of usefulness with the 
least technical detail, would be employed. 

In starting a library, most schools have books scattered 
throughout the building which must be gathered in, appraised, 
sorted and made into a working collection, and the trained li- 
brarian is not always at hand. 

To assist those unfamiliar with this kind of work, the sim- 
plest processes are described in detail and if carefully arid 
thoughtfully followed will bring the library into order and use- 

Putting a library in order is not a work for children ; it should 
be done by a person of education and judgment, using student 
help for mechanical processes only, and these carefully super- 
vised, that the work may be done neatly and accurately. 

Directions for each part of the work should be carefully 
studied and thoroughly understood before that work is under- 
taken, or the effort will be wasted. 

It is desirable that standard library methods be used, but in 
simplified form. Original systems of classification however good 
in themselves are seldom practicable since the personnel of a 
school staff is ever changing, and work done in an original way 
is usually unintelligible to those who come after. 



Library classification and methods are becoming familiar to 
an ever increasing group and trained librarians can continue 
a standard system with little loss in adjustment. 

Putting an old library in order takes time and the work must 
be carefully planned to make the time spent upon it count to the 
best advantage. , 

Experience in organizing public and school libraries has 
shown the following routine to be the most economical of time : 

Routine of Processes in Putting the Library in Order 

1. Preparation of shelving 

2. Collecting the books belonging to the library 

3. Ordering supplies 

4. Sorting the books into groups 

1 i ) Discards 

(2) Books to be rebound 

(3) Books to be mended 

(4) Books in good condition and of known usefulness 

5. Mending books in need of repair 

6. Removing old labels from the backs 

7. Mechanical preparation of new books 

8. Placing the book pocket on inside front or back cover 

9. Classification 

10. Accessioning 

11. Writing book card 

12. Marking books on the back 

13. Arrangement on shelves 

14. Marking shelves. Posting classification outline 

15. Checking school list 

16. Charging records 

*I7. Making the card records 

(1) Shelf list 

(2) Catalog 

The details for these processes follow in the same order. 
^Country schools would omit Processes (16 and 17). 

i. Preparation of Shelving 

There should be enough shelving to accommodate all the 
books belonging to the library and to allow for growth. It is 
useless to attempt to put a library in order unless there is 


sufficient shelving upon which to place the books after they are 
classified. See suggestions on shelving in the article on The 
Library room. 

2. Collecting the Books 

Before beginning the work all of the books belonging to the 
school should be called in. Teachers and pupils should be asked 
to bring in all of the books they have and a request put in the 
local paper that all books belonging to the school be returned 
from the homes. All of the library books belonging to the 
school should be shelved in the library room that they may be 
available when not in use. If kept permanently in the class- 
rooms, they are lost to the rest of the school. 

3. Supplies 

Library supplies have been standardized to meet the needs of 
this kind of work, and library supplies, not business cards and 
files, should be bought. 

Supplies should be ordered for the part of the work that is 
to be undertaken. If a library is wholly unorganized, the sup- 
plies needed first will be: Mending material, pockets, cards and 
Charging tray for charging system; white ink, India ink and 
shellac for marking the books; accession book, and shelf sup- 
ports. Catalog cards and catalog card cases should not be or- 
dered until the other work is completed. 

The following list of supplies may be recommended for use- 
fulness. Price lists of library supply houses must be consulted. 
They are omitted here because of frequent changes. 



Accession book (1000 line) (paper) 
Steel ink eraser 

Charging system 

Loose leaf accession sheets 
500 book pockets (open end, printed with name of library) 

500 book pocket strips 


500 book cards 

500 date slips 



Charging tray with guides (wood, without cover) 

Record sheets 


David White Letterine 


Gaylord's White marking ink 
India ink 
White shellac 
Penholder, preferably cork 
Pens Esterbrook Judges' quill No. 312 


See under Mending, p. 37. 


Library stamp 


Book supports, black japanned 
Shelf label holders, black japanned 
(Give thickness of shelf.) 


Staple supplies may be obtained through school supply houses 
or obtained direct from manufacturers below. The list is by no 
means complete, but may be useful for certain sections of the 

Accession books 

Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin 
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 
Riverside Printing Co., St Paul 


Catalog cases and cards 

Boston Index Card Co., Boston 

Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin 

Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y. 

Globe-Wernicke Co., Cincinnati 

Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 

Cataloging aids 

A. L. A. Publishing Bd., 17 E. Washington St., Chicago 

A. L. A. Catalog rules 

A. L. A. List of subject headings 

Hitchler. Cataloging for small libraries . 

List of subject headings for small libraries (H. W. Wilson 


Mann. A. L. A. heading for juvenile catalogs 
Charging systems: book pockets; book cards; charging trays 

Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin 
Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y. 
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 
Riverside Printing Co., St Paul 

Classification aids 

Cutter. 2 figure decimal alphabetic order table. Li- 
brary Bureau 

Dewey. Abridged decimal classification. (New edition) 
Library Bureau 


Globe-Wernicke Co., Cincinnati 

Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 

Shaw-Walker Co., Muskegon, Michigan 

Yawman & Erbe Mfg. Co., Rochester, Boston, New York 

Lettering and stamping outfits 

Rubber stamps 

Allen Bros., Boston 

Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin 

Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 


Wilson's gummed letters. Tablet and Ticket Co., 624 W. 
Adams St., Chicago 

Show card inks in assorted colors. Walbrun Kling co., 

Library desks 

Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 

Magazine covers 

American Library Bindery, Philadelphia (A. L. A. binder) 
Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin 
Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y. (Bull dog) 
H. R. Huntting Co., Springfield, Mass. 
W. G. Johnston & Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 
S. A. Stewart Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. (Baldwin & Lockit hold- 
Ward Bros., Jacksonville, 111. (Spring back) 

Mending supplies 

Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin 
Waldorf Bindery Co., St Paul 

Mounting board and paper 

E. E. Babb, Boston 

Carter, Rice Co., Boston 

Thomas Charles Co., Chicago (agents for Milton Bradley) 

Pamphlet binders and boxes 

Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y. 

Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 

H. Schultz & Co., Superior & Robert sts., Chicago 

Statistic sheets 

Democrat Printing Co., Madison, Wisconsin 

Gaylord Bros., Syracuse, N.Y. 

Library Bureau, Boston, Chicago, New York 


4. Sorting the Books 

The test of usefulness should be applied to every book put 
in the school library. It is not the place for obsolete text-books, 
indigent books, old books of teaching methods, gift books, dis- 
cards from home libraries, subscription books, curiosities and 
odds and ends from other departments of the school. 

If the school owns a group of books old enough to be really 
interesting as types, they should be kept as a separate collection, 
not classified as a part of the school library. 


These should be properly classified and arranged in pamphlet 
boxes or in a vertical file, but until bound, are not to be con- 
sidered library books, and should not be entered in the accession 


Much valuable material is contained in government docu- 
ments, but many of the documents are of unwieldy size, and re- 
quire special shelving. 

For a small school the documents are most useful that can be 
classified and arranged on the shelves with other books. 

Suggestions for documents to collect may be obtained from 
Wyer Government documents for the small library, and the 
lists appearing quarterly in The Booklist (A. L. A. pub. bd. 78 
E. Washington st., Chicago. 25c) 

No bound documents should be destroyed. 

Bound documents of extra size and uncertain usefulness 
should be given to the Public Library if it wishes them, or re- 
turned to Washington. 

A list of the United States documents of which the school 
wishes to dispose should be sent to the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Washington, D.C., and if acceptable to him, mail sacks 
and mailing franks will be sent to the local postoffice that they 
may be returned free of charge. 

State documents may be returned to the Document Clerk at 
the Capitol, but charges must be prepaid. 



Text-books in sets and sets of classics and other supple- 
mentary reading should be kept in the text-book room, not in 
the library. If bound books one or two of each title used as 
supplementary reading may be put in the library. 


The bound books are divided into four groups : discards ; 
books to be rebound; books to be mended; books to be pre- 
pared for the shelves. 

( i ) Discards 

Books too soiled or worn out to be of service to the library 
should be discarded. 

Old books of teaching methods and text-books of no value 
for reference, are not worth the time it takes to put them in or- 

A book which has been little used should not be discarded 
without a very careful examination of the subject-matter to see 
if it could be used. Some unused books may be of value and 
only need to be known. 

A.11 discarded books must be checked off the accession book 
and other records. 

Final disposition should be made of the books discarded 
they should not be given to students or the janitor or allowed to 
be distributed about the town to eventually find their way back 
to the library. 

As other materials in the school are used, worn out and dis- 
carded, so the school library should be expected to wear out and 
discard some books every year, and some books must be re- 

Country schools usually have inadequate shelving and are 
often overcrowded with books of little value. Books unsuited to 
the pupils, and of no interest to the neighborhood, should be re- 
moved from the shelves. If the school board is unwilling to 
destroy them, they should be neatly packed in a wooden box and 



One book out of covers should be kept to show how a book 
is made when class instruction is given in the care of books. 
Portions of worn books may sometimes be used to advantage. 
Illustrations having any value in connection with nature, lan- 
guage or story work may be trimmed and filed in large envelopes 
marked with the subject for which they are useful, or they may 
be mounted on pulp board cut to uniform size, marked with the 
subject and filed in cases or drawers. Single poems may be 
mounted in the same way, filed and indexed. Stories for telling 
may also be saved and filed in bulletin boxes. In some country 
schools, books to be discarded are looked over for material for 
booklets, such as a Longfellow booklet, containing a biographical 
sketch and extracts from his writings. This material is marked 
and filed away until needed. 

When material has been culled from books, the residue should 
be baled or put in bags and sold for waste paper. Thrift in 
collecting and selling old books, magazines and paper has pro- 
vided funds for many desirable new books for the school li- 

(2) Books To Be Rebound 

Good service cannot be given by books out of repair, there- 
fore the physical care of books is a feature of school library 
work. The physical make-up should be understood, so that the 
librarian may know when a book must be rebound and when it 
may be mended. 


Books are printed in sheets and folded to form sections or 
signatures. The number of times the sheet is folded determines 
the number of pages in a section and the size of the book. Four 
folds makes a quarto book, eight folds an octavo, the usual size 
of a library book. In making the sections into a book, they are 
first "gathered" and arranged in order, then sewed. The best 
sewing is done over tapes. 

A sewing bench is a frame with tapes stretched from top to 
bottom. The sections are backed to these tapes, one by one. The 
sewer finds the middle of the section, sews in and out around 


the tapes, then adds the next section. All the sections are sewed, 
including the added section of title page, fly leaves and end 
papers. When the tapes are cut an inch on each side is left to 
project over the end paper. 

The majority of books of fiction and popular books are 
sewed on a machine which fastens the sections together with a 
lock stitch. 

After the book is sewed it is trimmed to exact size. Next a 
strip of thin cloth called super is glued fast to the back, with a 
portion about one inch wide projecting on either side and well 
pasted to the end paper to form a hinge for the cover. It is in 
the hinge that the book usually becomes weak first. When the 
glue is nearly dry, the book is backed by clamping it, back up, 
between iron plates, and the back rounded with a hammer. The 
groove made by hammering the back over the iron plates helps 
to fit the book to the cover. 

The ordinary book is case-bound ; that is, the case or cover 
is made separately and the book set in. It is made by covering 
the two stiff sides, called boards, with book cloth, the space for 
the back being lined with a strip of heavy paper. 

The book is placed in the case, the boards fitting into the 
groove in the book. 

The extra sheets, known as end papers, which were attached 
to the first and last sections of the sewed book, are now pasted 
on the inside of the cover. These are often of decorated paper. 

"Library binding" involves special sewing, reinforcing or 
strengthening the joint of the end paper with cloth and lining 
the end papers with super. Books should always be ordered in 
"Library binding" when this edition is noted in the school lists. 
The additional cost is from ten to fifteen cents, but the book 
will give that much additional service. 

Pressing and drying are accompaniments ,of the binding 
process at every step so that a book comes to us stiff and dry. 


A little care in the handling of new books will save trouble 
later on. It is necessary to loosen the stiff glue on the back 
without breaking the stitches of the sewing. Opening the book 
according to the directions will gently loosen it throughout 
without breaking. 


How to open a new book : Hold the book with its back on a 
table or smooth surface. Press the front cover down until it 
touches the table, then the back cover holding the leaves in one 
hand while you open a few at the back, then at the front, al- 
ternately, pressing them down gently until you reach the center 
of the volume. Never open the book violently nor bend back 
the covers ; it is liable to break the back and to loosen the leaves. 

White or very light covered books should be coated all over 
with white shellac and thoroughly dried before they are used. 
The shellac must sometimes be thinned below the average com- 
mercial standard to obtain satisfactory results. A cord stretched 
between two chairs makts a convenient drying arrangement. 

Books must be kept upright on the shelves, not too tightly 
crowded. The constant use of book supports will save much 
mending and binding. 


When books are returned the condition should be observed 
and none should be replaced on the shelves which are in need of 
mending or binding. 


Do not rebind books with pages missing or with inside mar- 
gins less than one-half inch. As a rule, do not rebind books 
costing fifty cents or less. Exception is sometimes made to this 
rule in the case of picture books. All books sent to the bindery be- 
fore the stage of complete dilapidation are much stronger after 
rebinding than in original covers. 

Do not rebind badly soiled books. 

Books with pages missing at the beginning or end of the 
book should not be rebound. 


If the stitches are broken and the sections are loose through- 
out the book it must be rebound at once if it is to give further 
service. Rebind books costing more than fifty cents if they are 
of value to the library. 

Bind magazines needed for reference work if indexed. 


Reference books in constant use, like encyclopedias, diction- 
aries, periodicals, indexes and atlases, should be carefully 
watched for torn or loose leaves. As soon as the binding shows 
signs of giving way the volume should be sent to the binder. 


Examine books to see if any printed pages are missing. This 
is important, as a book with many pages missing, particularly at 
the front or back, is worthless. 

Be sure to send the title page. 

If the accession number of the book has been entered on the 
book plate only, enter it in the proper place (the first right- 
hand page back of the title page) before sending the book to 
the bindery. 

The usual material for rebinding is art vellum or library 
buckram. Either is sufficiently strong for all ordinary books. 
Color desired should be specified; red is a good color for little 
children's books. 

If the book is one of a set such as encyclopedias, instruct the 
binder not to trim, and indicate color and style of binding and 
lettering that it may match the rest of the set as nearly as pos- 

Instructions for charging books sent to the bindery, are given 
on page 72. 


The usual cost of rebinding a book of ordinary size in art 
vellum is 60-70 cents, and some what more in library buckram. 
Large books cost five cents additional for every inch over the 
octavo size. 

Binding of magazines costs from eighty-five cents for size 
of Harper's magazine upward. 


It is hardly worth while to bind magazines which are not in- 
dexed in periodical indexes since the use would be limited. 

Those magazines which have been most frequently consulted 
for material of permanent interest would be the first choice 
for binding. 


Single numbers of a magazine when devoted to one subject 
such as the National Geographic may be put in pamphlet binder 
and treated as a book. 

Back numbers may be kept in order for consultation by 
means of bulletin boxes described on page 100. 


When magazine covers are not used, and for magazines to 
be circulated, reinforcing is necessary, to prolong the period of 

This is done before the magazine is used at all. The orig- 
inal cover is removed and a cover of heavy paper the exact size 
is fastened to the magazine with strips of double stitched cloth, 
or sewed through. 

The original cover is then pasted on and dried. If the mag- 
azine is to be circulated the pocket or slip can then be pasted on 
in the usual way. 

(3) Books To Be Mended 

Early and careful mending greatly prolongs the usefulness 
of the book. 


If the sewing of the book is firm, the stitches unbroken, it 
may be mended to good advantage. 


Before beginning work, materials must be procured. These 
need not be expensive or elaborate, 
(i) Mending cloth strips. 

These are strips of white cambric, one inch wide, which 
may be bought accurately cut in packages of 30 yards. 

The strips may be cut from material bought by the yard. 
.It should be of fair quality cambric, cut very carefully and 
accurately. Using a ruler as a gauge, the material should be 
marked in inch spaces, lengthwise of the goods. Crease well 
and cut cleanly with sharp scissors, or cut along mark with 
sharp knife, using ruler as guide. 


(2) Outing flannel for recasing. 

Double faced outing flannel of thin, cheap quality may be 
used for this. Since the need for this type of mending does 
not occur frequently, one-half yard will be an ample supply. 

(3) Art vellum for mending torn books. 

It may sometimes be bought in assorted colors from the 
bindery in packages containing six colors, 3 yards, 4 inches 
wide, each, or by the yard. 

(4) Bond paper. 

Used for hinges for leaves and illustrations. 

(5) Onion skin paper. 
Used for mending tears. 

These papers may be bought in sheets and cut as needed, 
or bought in strips ready cut in packages of 500 strips, I 
inch by II inches. 

(6) Brushes. 

One-half inch flat or oval brush with long handle for 

One-fourth inch brush for shellac. 

(7) Paste. 

A good paste may be made according to the following 
receipt : 

One tablespoonful of alum. 

One quart of water. 

One-half pint of flour. 

Mix the flour with a small quantity of water and stir into 
a cream ; bring water to a boil ; stir in the cream and cook for 
twenty minutes ; dissolve the alum in the water and stir into 
the paste about three minutes before it is cooked ; stir while 
cooking, strain and add twenty drops of oil of cloves. 

"A substitute for flour is Spon-tem obtained from any 
paper hanger. To use: mix with hot water and let boil up. 
Keeps indefinitely if covered. Any paste will spoil if left 
open." Wisconsin Bulletin, May, 1918. 

The library paste found in the schools has usually proved 

A dry paste powder to be made into paste, as the need 
arises, may be obtained in a one-half pound carton making 


two quarts of paste, or may be obtained by the pound from 
the paper hanger. 

Other supplies to have on hand: 
Bone paper folder. 
Cheese cloth for paste work. 
Eraser or kneaded rubber. 
Old newspapers. 

Tissue paper (white). 
Japanese tissue for mending dictionaries. 


All mending must be done very neatly, carefully and ac- 
curately. Before any work is begun, books should be examined 
for all defects and tears arid loose pages should be repaired be- 
fore hinges are put on. 

Never use mucilage or glue in mending books which are to 
be rebound. 


Pencil marks should be removed with soft eraser or kneaded 
rubber. Book covers may be cleaned with Ivory soap and water, 
or vinegar and water. If the latter is used, take two parts vine- 
gar and one part water. Vinegar should not be used on leather 


If the paper is soft and is torn with an edge, it may be 
mended in this way: Place a piece of tissue paper under the 
page, carefully match the print, put a little paste on each edge 
and rub the edge down gently. Cover with another piece of 
tissue paper. When thoroughly dry, tear away superfluous 

If there is no edge on the tear, cut a strip of onion skin 
paper, cover lightly with paste, taking care to wet as little as pos- 
sible, and rub down gently. 

For torn edges, cut a strip of very thin bond or onion skin 
paper, paste on leaf, smoothing out carefully all torn or crumpled 


edges. Be careful that the added strip does not make the page 
wider than the others so that it protrudes. 


In the ordinary book, the illustrations are merely pasted in 
and drop out quickly. The frontispiece usually pulls out the 
title page. If the illustrations are ordinary, such as are found 
in fiction, they are not worth the time required to put them back. 
Important illustrations, such as plates from bird and wild flower 
books, should be carefully reinserted. 

Sometimes the illustration may be replaced by "tipping in." 
Place the loose leaf on a sheet of waste paper, then cover it with 
another piece of paper, leaving one-eighth of an inch of the 
inner or sewed margin exposed. Apply a very thin coat of paste 
to the margin and then carefully insert the leaf in its proper 
place in the book. Rub down carefully. 

Many illustrations are on heavy coated paper and must be 
replaced by a paper hinge. Take a strip of paper one-half inch 
wide and of the same length as the leaf ; carefully fold this strip 
down the center, apply a thin coat of paste to one side of the 
hinge thus formed and paste on to the inner or sewed margin of 
the leaf. When this has dried sufficiently, apply a very thin coat 
to the other half of the same side of the hinge and put the leaf 
in its proper place in the book. Push in as far as possible, rub 
down gently and firmly. 


By joint is meant the hinge or strip by . which the cover is 
attached to the body of a book. - If the sewing is intact through- 
out the book, the first and last sections firm and the super strip 
loose, but not torn off, the book may be mended satisfactorily 
by adding a cloth hinge. The cloth hinge is used only between 
the cover and the fly leaves or first and last section, never 
between pages. 

Before putting in strip, find the end of the first section, put 
a very little paste between last page of first section and first page 
of second, and rub page down well. Be careful that this pasting 
does not extend over more than one-eighth inch of the page. 

Be sure that the title page is in place. This is often loose and 
must be tipped on the first section. 



Open book and place a closed book under the front cover. 
Cut the inch strip of white cambric (described under materials) 
a little shorter than the book. Fold through the center; paste 
lightly but thoroughly; apply one-half to the inside of the book 
cover and the other half to the fly leaf. With the bone paper 
folder, press well into the book. Wipe off all superfluous paste. 
Place a sheet of oiled paper between the sides of the hinge 
formed by the cambric, close the book, with the bone paper folder 
press the original crease between back and sides of book into 
place, and place under weight to dry. When dry, open very care- 
fully, following directions given for opening new books. 


If the back is torn, paste down edges of tear very carefully. 
Cut a piece of art vellum two inches wider than the back of the 
book and one and one-half inches longer than the back of the 
book. Paste strip and place carefully on the back, getting center 
of strip in the center of the back. Turn in at the top and bot- 
tom, having edges exact with top and bottom of book. Press 
cloth into original crease and paste the vellum on the sides, rub- 
bing down well. Replace author's name and title of book on the 
back in white ink letters. Coat lettering with shellac when dry. 


This form of mending is not usually employed if book is to 
be rebound. It can only be used if the sewing is intact and the 
sections firm. It is used for a book when the super strip which 
holds it in the case is torn. 

Take the book from the cover and tear off the old super from 
the back of the book and inside of the covers. Cut a strip of 
double-faced outing flannel an inch shorter than the book and 
three inches wider than the back of the book. Apply paste 
thickly to back of book, place center of cloth strip to middle of 
book. When partly dry, cover this in turn with paste. 

Paste the cloth which extends at the sides to the fly leaves 
and then cover the whole fly leaf with paste. Before inserting 
the book in the covers, put paste on the sides where the old 
super was removed, then press the book into the cover and close. 


Open at once and if the fly leaf does not cover the old end 
paper, slip it into place and down. If there is not an extra leaf 
to use for the end paper, add a sheet of good paper, neatly cut 
and pasted on. 

Useful pamphlets on mending are Sawyer How to care for 
books in the library, Democratic Printing Company, Madison, 
Wisconsin, and Brown and Stiles Mending and repair of books, 
A.L.A. pub. bd., Chicago. 

(4) Books in good physical condition and of worth to the library 


If these books have labels on the back, which are half off or 
carelessly placed, they should be removed at this time. Place 
books of uniform size in groups on the table, back up, with book 
supports at each end of the group to hold them together closely. 

Put pieces of very wet blotter on the labels. As soon as the 
labels are thoroughly moistened, remove them and dry the books 
gently with cheesecloth. Do not rub hard or scrape as this re- 
moves the sizing from the binding and makes it difficult to mark 
the book with white ink. 

See directions below. 

7. Mechanical Preparation of New Books 

When the books are received they are checked with the bill 
and with the order, to see that all have been received. 


This information is useful in accessioning and in determin- 
ing quickly the cost of a book. It includes the date of the bill, 
place where bought, and the price, written in pencil in the book, 
in the inner margin of the first right-hand page back of the 
title page. 

This entry is made as neatly and compactly as possible, using 
abbreviations for date and source (place where bought) or 
donor's name if gift). 



When working with the books, open each one carefully ac- 
cording to directions on page 35. 


The library stamp should be in small, clear type; it is usually 
in two lines, e.g. 
Public School Library 
Argyle, Minn. 

The books are stamped on the title page, in the upper right- 
hand corner, and on the $ist or loist page. The stamp is placed 
squarely, taking care not to blur. 

Bills should be filed with the clerk of the school board. If 
state library aid is asked for, the receipted order must be sent to 
the county superintendent. 

8. Placing the Book Pocket 

The book pocket is a part of the charging system described 
on page 68. 

The simplest form is the manila book pocket strip which is 
held in place by pasting the diagonal edges to the book. In or- 
dering a statement should be made as to whether the strip will 
be used in the front or the back of the book. 

Open end pockets are most commonly used. These should be 
printed with the name of the library, at the bottom of the pocket, 
leaving the top free for other information. Pockets should be 
accurately folded, the flaps around the back. 


Since in many libraries a book plate or a slip giving the rules 
of the library is pasted on the inside of the front cover of the 
book, the book pocket is usually put on the inside of the back 

The edges of the pocket and the flaps are carefully pasted, 
taking care that no paste gets under the flaps. The pocket is 
placed squarely, in the same relative position in each book, one 
inch from the bottom. It is rubbed down well with clean cloth, 
and all superfluous paste wiped off. 

Sealed pockets are obtainable and save much time in book 


9. Classification 

Classification is the putting together of like objects or facts 
under a common designation Standard dictionary. 

Library classification is for the purpose of bringing books 
that are on the same subject together on the shelves. 

A school library should be classified by a standard system, 
because a library classified by an original system cannot readily 
be used by anyone except the originator, and the school per- 
sonnel changes frequently. By the use of a standard system, 
the library is brought into harmony with other library work, is 
intelligible to anyone who has ever used a library and pupils who 
become familiar with the classification of a school library can use 
a public library with ease. 

All the material in the library should be classified, whether 
books, bulletins or pamphlets. 

Many books for younger children are in story form, but if a 
book gives real information on any subject it should be given 
the class number for the subject. 
Conforming to public library classification. 

While the decimal classification is the most generally used 
and understood by library workers, many public libraries use 
it in adapted form. It is desirable that the school library should 
use the same form as the public library in the town, that stu- 
dents and teachers may go from one to the other easily. 

The library classification scheme in most common use in pub- 
lic and school libraries is the Dewey Decimal classification, 
named from its author, Mr. Melvil Dewey, Director of the New 
York State library, 1889-1904, and founder of the New York 
State Library school. 

TION 20 ED., 1912) 

"In this classification the field of knowledge is divided, into 
nine main classes, numbered i to 9. Cyclopedias, and other 
books so general in character as to belong to no one of these 
classes are marked o and form a tenth class. Each class is sim- 
ilarly separated into nine divisions, general works belonging to 
no division, having o in place of the division number. 

"Divisions are similarly divided into nine sections. 


"Where o occurs in the class number, it has its normal zero 
value. Thus a book numbered 510 is class 5, division i, but be- 
longs to no section, i.e., it treats of the division mathematics in 
general and is limited to no one section; whereas Geometry, 
which is so limited, is marked 513. 

"500 indicates a treatise on science in general, limited to no 


Arabic numerals are used for notation. The class numbers 
or symbols have been compared to shorthand. In a system 
of shorthand each character has a meaning which must be 
learned, so in classification, each number has a meaning which 
may be learned and which is only to be used to mark a book 
having the same meaning. 

Characters to modify the class numbers are used for special 

To facilitate arrangement on separate shelves, the class 
number for reference books is preceded by R. and the number 
for grade books is preceded by j or y. 

Every large school should have a copy of Dewey Abridged 
Decimal Classification (Forest Press, Lake Placid, N.Y. ) for 
use in connection with the school library lists. 

An abridgment for school libraries was suggested by Miss 
Cornelia Marvin in the Oregon List of books for school li- 
braries, 1907. This abridgment, with some additions, has been 
used in the Minnesota School Library lists, and in the Minnesota 
school libraries. 

The changes made in the Abridged classification to adapt it 
for school use are chiefly in the use of general numbers (3d 
summary) rather than specific numbers, e.g., 320 for all books on 
government, including the books on Administration of govern- 

The class 400 is often omitted in school libraries. The study 
of language in school is so closely allied to literature that all 
the books may properly be placed in the literature numbers. 

In 630 Agriculture and 640 Home Economics, newer group- 
ings of the topics are suggested. 

920 is used for all Collective biography and 921 for all In- 
dividual biography. 


Dewey Decimal Classification 

The ten classes showing the relation of the subjects and some 
of the sub-divisions used : 

R General reference 
ooo General works 

028 Easy reading books 
100 Philosophy 

150 Psychology 

170 Ethics 
200 Religion 

220 Bible stories 

290 Mythology 
300 Sociology 

320 Government - 

330 Economics 

370 Education 

380 Commerce 

398 Fairy stories and leg- 
500 Science 

510 Mathematics 

520 Astronomy 

530 Physics 

540 Chemistry 

550 Geology, Physical 

570 Biology 

571 Primitive life 
580 Botany 

590 Zoology 
600 Useful arts 

607 Vocational guidance 
612 Hygiene 
630 Agriculture 

630.1 Country life 
640 Household economics 
650 Business 
680 Manual training 

700 Fine arts 

740 Drawing 

780 Music 

790 Sports 

793 Indoor amusements 
800 Literature 

807 Study and teaching 

808 Composition, rhetoric 
808.5 Debating 

808.8 Readers and 

810 English and American 

811 Poetry 

811.8 Poetry collec- 

812 Drama 

814 Essays and prose mis- 


814.8 Essays col- 

815 Orations collections 
830 German 

839 Scandinavian 

840 French 

870 Greek and Latin 
900 Travel, Biography, History 
910-917 Travel 

920 Biography collective 

921 Biography individual 
930 Ancient history 

940 General and modern 
942 English history 
973 American history 
Fiction No number. Arranged 
alphabetically by author. 


This scheme is sufficiently detailed for rural and small village 
school libraries. 

Larger schools, with many books in the school libraries, will 
need the more detailed scheme for some or all classes. The 
number of books in a class (on a particular subject) or likely to 
be added, will determine the extent to which the classification 
will be carried. 

Schools with large collections of books on Pedagogy for 
Teachers' training departments, Agriculture, Home economics, 
English and American literature or American history, will find 
all or part of the larger scheme useful. 


The ten classes showing the relation of the subjects and some 
of the subdivisions used 
ooo General 

020 Library economy. 

029 Reference aids. 

030 General encyclopedias. 
100 Philosophy 

150 Psychology. 

170 Ethics. 

200 Religion 

220 Bible stories. 

290 Mythology. 

300 Sociology 

320 Government. 

330 Economics. 

370 Education General works. 
370.15 Educational Psychology. 
370.9 History of education. 

371 Principles and practice of teaching. 

371.1 Teachers. Salaries. Certificates. Pensions. 

371.2 School organization and administration. 

371.3 Methods of instruction. 

371.5 Government and discipline. 

371.6 School buildings and equipment. Grounds. 

371.7 School hygiene. 

371-73-4 Gymnastics. Play. Recreation. 
371.9 Education of special classes. 


372 Elementary education. Story telling. 

372.1 Child study. 

372.2 Kindergarten. 

372.8 Collection of stories to tell. 

373 Secondary schools. 

374 Self-education. Extension teaching. 

374.71 Home and school. Use of school buildings. 

375 Curriculum. 
375.4 Spelling. 

37543 Foreign languages. 

375-5 Nature study. Science. 

375.51 Mathematics. 

375.61 Physiology and hygiene. 

375.62 Industrial education. Clubs. 
375-^3 Agriculture. School gardens. 
375.64 Home economics. 

375.7 Art. Music. 

375.8 Reading. English. 

375.9 History and civics. 
375-91 Geography. 

377 Religious, ethical instruction. 

378 Colleges and universities. 

379 Relation of state. 
379.19 Rural schools. 

380 Commerce. Commercial geography. 
500 Science 

510 Mathematics. 

520 Astronomy. 

530 Physics. 

540 Chemistry. 

550 Geology. 

551 Physical geography. 

570 Biology. 

571 Primitive life. 
590 Zoology. 

600 Useful arts 

607 Vocational guidance. 

608 Inventions 
620 Engineering 
630 Agriculture. 

630.1 Country life. 


630.13 Agricultural economics. 

630.2 Farm management. 

630.3 Dictionaries of agriculture. 

630.4 Essays. Addresses. 

631 Soils. 

632 Plant husbandry. 

633 Field crops. 

633.1 Cereal crops. 

633.2 Forage crops. 

634 Horticulture. 

635 Forestry. 

636 Animal husbandry. 

637 Dairy farming. 

638 Other agricultural industries. 

640 Home economics. 

641 Food. Nutrition. 
643 House planning. 

646 Textiles and clothing. 

647 Home management. 
'648 Care of the sick. 

650 Business. Communication. Transportation. 

680 Manual training. Shop work. 
700 Fine arts 

720 Architecture. 

730 Sculpture. 

740 Drawing. Design. 

741 Mechanical drawing. 
750 Painting. 

770 Photography. 

780 Music. 

790 Outdoor amusements. Sports. 

793 Indoor amusements : plays for acting. 
800 Literature 

807 Study and teaching. 

807.1 Poetry. 

807.2 Drama. 

807.3 Fiction. Short story. 

808 Composition. Rhetoric. Collections. 

808. 1 Poetry 

808.2 Drama T 


808.3 Cyclopedias of quotations. 

8084 Prose. 

808.5 Debating. 

808.8 Readers and speakers. 

810 American literature. American and English. 

810.8 Collections: Illustrative prose and poetry. 

810.9 Criticism. 

811 American poetry. 
811.8 Collections. 

812 American drama. 

814 American essays and prose miscellany. 

815 American orations. 

820 English literature. 

820.8 Collections: Illustrative prose and poetry. 

820.9 Criticism. 

821 English poetry. 
821.8 Collections. 

822 English drama. 

822.3 Shakespeare including works, criticism, etc. 

822.8 Collections. 

824 English essays and prose miscellany. 

825 English orations. 
830 German. 

839 Scandinavian. 

840 French. 

870 Greek and Latin, 
ooo Travel. Biography. History. 

910 Geography and travel. 
910.1 Industries. 

910.9 Exploration and discovery. 
912 Atlases. 

914 Travel Europe. 

915 Travel Asia. 

916 Travel Africa. 

917 Travel North America, Central America, West 


918 Travel South America. 

919 Travel Australia and the islands. Arctic regions. 

920 Biography Collective. 

921 Biography Individual. 


930 Ancient history. 

940 General European and modern. 

940.2 Modern Europe. 

940.3 World war. 

940.5 Later 2oth century. 
970 Indian life and history. 

973 American history. 

973.1 Discovery. 

973.2 Colonial. 
973-3 Revolution. 

9734 Constitutional period. 

973-5 War of 1812. 

973.6 War with Mexico. 
973-7 Civil War. 

974 New England. 

975 Southeastern. 

976 South Central or Gulf. 

977 North Central or Lake. 

978 Western or Mountain. 

979 Pacific. 

980 South America. 

990 Oceanica. Polar regions. 


Where classification of agriculture bulletins is desired, the 
following scheme will be useful. It will be noted that the 
numbers correspond to the classification used for books of Agri- 
culture in "Library books for High schools" (U.S. Bur. of edu- 
cation Bulletin 1917 no. 41) but are more extended. 

Classification for Agriculture Literature 

by Mrs. F. H. Ridgway, 
Berea College Library, Berea, Kentucky 

Library Journal O, 1913 
630 Agriculture. 

.1, Rural sociology; .11, Statistics; .13, Agricultural eco- 
nomics; .131, Labor; .134, Co-operation; .136, Finance; 


.138, Production" .14, Agricultural legislation; .18, Trans- 
portation; .19, Country life; .191, Farm home; .192, 
Farm women; .193, Farm boys and girls. 
.2, Farm management; .22, Organization and equipment 
of farm; 221; Farmstead, Fields, etc.; .222, Farmhouse, 
Outbuildings, Fences (See also 728) ; .223, Farm ma- 
chinery and implements; .23 Administration of farm; 
.231, Farm accounting. 
.3, Dictionaries. Cyclopedias. 

.4, Essays. Addresses. Popular literature about agricul 
ture and country life. 
.5, Periodicals. 

.6, Societies. Proceedings, etc. 
.7, Study and teaching ; .71 Elementary schools ; 
.72, Secondary schools; .73, Colleges and universities; 
.74, Extension work; .75, Schools and experiment sta- 
tions ; 

.76, Institutes, Summer schools; .78 Fairs, Exhibits. 
.8, Applied sciences ; .83, Agricultural physics ; .84 Agri- 
cultural chemistry. 
.9, History. Travel and description. 

631 Soils. 

.1 Physics. 

.2 Chemistry. 

3 Tillage. 

.4 Crop rotation. 

.5 Fertilizers. 

.6 Reclamation. 

.7 Drainage. 

.8 Irrigation. 

.9 Special areas. 

.91 Dry farming. 

.92 Irrigation farming. 

.93 Mountain farming. 

632 Plant husbandry. 

.03, Dictionaries. Cyclopedias; .05, Periodicals; 

.06, Societies; .07, Study and teaching; .09, History. 
.1 Seeds and germination. 
2 Planting and transplanting. 
.3 Training, pruning. 


.4 Breeding. 

.5 Pests and diseases. 

.51 Pests. 

.511 Animals (also beneficial). 

.512 Plant 

.52 Diseases. 

.521 Parasitic. 

.522 Non-parasitic. 

.6 Protection from frost, drought, etc. 

.7 Harvesting. Curing. Storing. 

.8 Marketing. Exhibiting. 

633 Field crops. 

.01, General culture and care; .011, Seeds, Germination; 
.012, Planting; .014, Breeding; .015, Pests and diseases; 
.016, Protection; .017, Harvesting; .018, Marketing; 
.03, Cyclopedias ; .05, Periodicals ; .06, Societies ; 
.07, Study and teaching ; .09, History. 
,i Cereal crops. 

(May arrange cereals in alphabetical order. Same 
arrangement may be made for other crops, for 
vegetables, fruits, etc., and for breeds of horses, 

.2 Forage crops. 
.21 Grasses. 
.22 Legumes. 
.3 Root crops. 
.4 Sugar plants. 
.5 Textile plants. 
.6 Alkaloidal plants. 
.7 Other. 

634 Horticulture. 

.01, General culture and care; .on, Seeds. Germination; 

.012, Planting; .013 Pruning; .014, Breeding; .015, Pests 

and diseases; 

.016, Protection; .017, Harvesting; .018, Marketing; 

03, Cyclopedias. 

.05, Periodicals ; .06, Societies ; 

.07, Study and teaching; .09, History. 
.T Vegetables. 
.11 Edible roots. 


.12 Edible stems. 

.13 Edible leaves. 

.14 Edible flowers. 

.15 Edible fruits. 

.16 Edible seeds. 

.17 Edible fungi. 

.2 Fruits. 

.21 Pomaceous. 

.22 Drupaceous. 

.23 Citrus. 

.24 Small fruits. 

.25 Grapes. 

.26 Nuts. 

.3 Floriculture. 

.31 Greenhouses. Conservatories. 

.32 Hotbeds. Coldframes. House plants. 

33 Outdoor floriculture. 

.34 Bulbous and tuberous plants. 

35 Cut flowers. 

.36 Annuals. 

.37 Other flowering plants. 

.38 Non-flowering plants. 

.39. Trees and shrubs. 

635 Forestry. 

.03, Cyclopedias; .05, Periodicals; .06, Societies; .07, 
Study and teaching; .09, History. Travel and descrip- 

.1 Silviculture. 

.2 Forest protection and preservation. 

.21 Pests and diseases. 

.3 Forest economics. 

.31 Forest policy. 

.311 Forest reserves. 

.5 Forest influences. 

.6 Management. 

.61 Mensuration. 

.62 Engineering. 

.63 Administration. 

.8 Utilization. 

.81 Lumbering. 



636 Animal husbandry. 

.003, Cyclopedias; .005, Periodicals; .006, Societies; .007, 
Study and teaching; .009, History. Travel and descrip- 
tion; .01, Breeds; .02, Feeds and feedings; .03, Care and 
housing; .04, Breeding; .05, Pests and diseases (See also 
619) ; .08, Exhibiting. Judging. 

.1 Horses. 

.11 Breeds. 

.in Light horses. 

.112 Draft horses. 

.113 Ponies. 

.13 Feeding ad care. 

.14 Breeding. 

.15 Diseases. 

.18 Exhibiting. Judging. 

.19 Asses. Mules. 

.2 Cattle. 

.21 Breeds. 

.211 Beef breeds. 

.212 Dairy breeds. 

.213 Dual purpose breeds. 

.23 Feeding and care. 

.24 Breeding. 

.25 Diseases. 

.28 Exhibiting. 

.3 Sheep. 

.31 Breeds. 

.33 Feeding and care. 

637 Dairy farming. 

O3, Cyclopedias; .05, Periodicals; 

Study and teaching; .09, History. 
.1 Milk. 
.2 Butter. 
.3 Cheese. 

638 Other agricultural industries. 
.1 Bee culture. 

.2 Silkworm culture. 
.3 Fish culture. 
.4 Trapping. 

639 U.S., state, and foreign government documents. 



























Feeding and care. 





Feeding and care. 











.06, Societies ; .07, 




To classify successfully, a very careful study must be made of 
the classification tables to get an understanding of the relation of 
subjects and the significance of the numbers. 

Classification is based on subject-matter; therefore, the book 
to be classified must be carefully examined to find out what it is 
about, as the title does not always indicate the subject. Table of 
contents must be studied, the introduction and at least part of 
the book read, before the subject can be fully determined. If 
there is an apparent choice of numbers the book is placed where 
it will be most useful. 

A course in classification in a library training class is in- 
dispensable to good work. Those unable to have such a course 
should follow closely the classification given in the Standard, 
Classified library lists for schools, for the titles given there, 
and get advice of a trained librarian for the others. Otherwise, 
confusion will ensue. 


Through the index at the back, the page on which the book 
is listed may be found. On turning to this page it will be no- 
ticed that a number of books are grouped alphabetically by 
author under a class number. The number printed at the head 
of the division is the classification number for every book in that 
division, thus all books listed under 290 Mythology would be 
marked 290, those figures being the symbol for the subject 
Mythology, and indicate its position on the shelves. 

Fiction is not usually classified, but is arranged on the shelves 
alphabetically by author's name. 

Children's books or grade books are classified in the same 
way as adult or high school books, that is, by subject-matter, 
even though the story form is used. As a convenience in arrang- 
ing on separate shelves the character (y or j) is placed before 
the class number for the grade books and (Y or J) for grade 

No numbers should be used that are not found in the School 
library lists or in the Abridged decimal classification. 

BOOK NUMBERS (also called Author number) 

In order to arrange the books alphabetically in each class, 


some libraries add below the classification number, a designation 
made from the author's surname. 

The first letter is sufficient for small collections. When exact 
arrangement is desired the Cutter alphabetic table may be used. 
From this, numbers are obtained to follow each author's initial 
and make strict alphabetical arrangement possible. 


Aii exception to the rule of assigning book numbers from 
the author's name is made in Class 921 Individual biography. 
Here the book numbers are assigned from the name of the per- 
son written about, the reason being that it is more useful to have 
all the biographies of a person grouped than to have them scat- 
tered according to author's name. 


Many schools have a large collection of Shakespeare's works, 
including collected works, individual plays, biography and 
criticism. To each book the number 822.3 is assigned and the 
group is arranged by use of the following book number .scheme : 

Shakespeare scheme Book numbers : 

Ai Collected works M4 Merchant of Venice 

A2 All's well that ends well M5 Merry wives of Windsor 

A3 Antony & Cleopatra M6 Midsummer night's dream 

A4 As you like it M7 Much ado about nothing 

C2 Comedy of errors O2 Othello 

C3 Coriolanus ?2 Pericles 

C4 Cymbeline ?3 Poems, including Sonnets 

H2 Hamlet R2 Richard II 

H4 Henry IV R 3 Richard III 

US Henry V R4 Romeo and Juliet 

H6 Henry VI T 2 Taming of the shrew 

H8 Henry VIII T3 Tempest 

J 2 Julius Caesar Timon Athens 

K2 King John 

K 3 King Lear TS Troilus & Cressida 

L2 Love's labor lost Twelfth night 

M2 Macbeth T8 Two gentlemen of Verona 

M3 Measure for measure W2 Winter's tale 



X plus author's initials for books about Shakespeare; biog- 
raphy, criticism, etc. 

Y plus initial for editor or compiler for concordances, dic- 
tionaries, etc. 

Thus the number for As you like it would be 822.3; for 
Raleigh- Shakespeare 822.3 A4 



Fiction is arranged on the shelves, alphabetically by author's 
name. Since the author's name is on the back, no marking is 
necessary. If however, some marking is preferred, the initial 
letter of the author's surname should be sufficient. Where ex- 
act arrangement is desired, the book is marked with numbers 
taken from the Cutter 2 figure alphabetic order table. 


When classifying, slips of paper are marked with the number 
and the slip placed in book so that number shows. It is left in 
book until it has been marked and is ready for the shelf. 


The classification number is printed in pencil in the book, in 
the upper left-hand corner of the first recto (right hand page) 
back of the title page. It is also printed on the upper left-hand 
corner of the pocket and the left-hand side of the book card, on 
the third line. The latter marking should be ink, and it is more 
convenient to do it at the time the accessioning is done. 

As the books are classified, they should be grouped by class 
on the shelf and accessioned in order. 

10. Accession Record 

This is an important business record, particularly when there 
is changing and inexperienced service in the library. 

Trained librarians find it possible to combine this record 
with others. 

Suggestions as to a substitute may be found on p. 73. 

The accession book is a chronological list of books added to 
the library. 


It should show at a glance how many books the library has 
ever had, what they cost and whether they have been withdrawn 
and why. It identifies each book and provides an inventory 
record for the library. All bound books belonging to the li- 
brary should be entered in it. It should never be kept in the 
same book with the charging record. 


A standard accession book only should be used. For schools, 
the Simplified accession book answers the purpose, and is the 
least expensive. Loose leaf accession books, for typewriter use 
may be obtained. They are preferred by the more experienced 
workers, who find no difficulty in keeping the sheets in proper 


Accessioning must be done neatly, accurately and in a busi- 
ness-like way. Good ink should be used, the writing must be 
clear and neat and the spelling exact. 

In accessioning an old library, the books are grouped to- 
gether by class before beginning the work. All the volumes 
in a set are brought together before any one is entered. This 
is a saving of time as ditto marks can be made for the author, 
title and publisher. Sets with first volume missing should not 
be entered. 


The standard rules for accessioning are given in the Intro- 
duction to the Accession book. These should be carefully 
studied before the work is begun and followed exactly. 

A few of the rules should be especially emphasized. 

No group of information should run beyond the space al- 
lotted to it. 

Enter only one book to a line, whether a single book or a 
volume in a set. 

Do not use an accession number a second time. If the book 
is lost or withdrawn, make note in withdrawal or notes column, 
but do not erase entry. 


Do not accession books in bad conditions, unbound pam- 
phlets, government or state documents unless they are classified 
as part of the library. 

The columns are rilled as follows: (See p. 63-4) 


This information is given by the business entry in new 
books; see page 42. 


Use real author's name, if author's name is known, surname 
only. When two authors, both surnames connected by "&." 
For collections, use editor's name. 


Brief but distinctive. 


First name in a firm, e. g. : Houghton, for Houghton, 
Mifflin co. 

When the name is a phrase ; abbreviated as A. L. A. pub. 
for A. L. A. publishing board. 


The title page date or copyright. 


Name of firm from whom the book was bought. Give in 
abbreviated form. 


Cost to the library. 


Check mark is made in this column if book was obtained in 
this way. 



This column used only when pamphlet or volume of maga- 
zines has been bound and then accessioned. 


Used only when book is in more than qne volume, or dupli- 
cate copies of the same book are added to the library. In the 
latter case Cop. 2, etc., is given. 


Call number is given in this column, thus connecting acces- 
sion record with the shelves and the shelf list. 


When book is lost, destroyed or discarded, entry is made in 
withdrawal column, giving date and cause. 


Cost is never omitted when obtainable, but can rarely be 
given in accessioning an old library. 


In doing the work, the book to be accessioned is opened to 
the title page, and the information given there used, not that on 
the back of the book. Care must be taken to get the real au- 
thor's name and to distinguish between title and series. In 
shortening the title, the distinctive part should be retained so 
that it represents this book and no other. 

The person writing in the Accession book should complete 
the entry there and put the accession number (the number of 
the line on which it was entered) in ink, in the book, in the 
lower margin of the first recto (right-hand page) back of the 
title page. The accession number should also be printed on ' 
the book pocket in the upper right-hand corner, and on the 
book card, on the third line, right side. It is also placed on 
the shelf list card. 

II. Writing the Book Card 

At the time of accessioning, the book card is written, using 
the same form for author's name, and title, as given in the 


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3o\ci<in r\ui-rnV5e,rs 



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Accession book. The information is usually placed in the fol- 
lowing order: 

First line: Author's surname. 

Second line : Brief title. - ; 





rrni i o 





Gc \ 

W* 3 







Third line, left side: Class number. 

Third line, right side : Accession number. 
For sample see page 70. 

In some libraries the class number and accession number 
are placed at the top of the card above the author and title. 




E&mun&o TPQ^att 






Marks placed on first recto or right hand page back of the title page: 
upper left corner, call number; inner margin, business entry; lower margin, 
accession number. 


As the books are accessioned they are transferred to another 
table to be marked. Care is necessary to prevent mixing the 
books and accessioning one the second time. 

If erasures in the Accession book are necessary, they are 
made with a sharp steel eraser and the erased spot well rubbed 
down with the hard end before another entry is attempted. 

12. Marking 

The classification process is not complete until the books are 
marked on the back with the call number. Each book is marked 
in the same relative position, two inches from the bottom. Plain 
print figures are used, making all of uniform size, not too large 
but clear enough to be readily seen. 


The objections to labels are : It takes as much time to put on 
a label as it does to mark directly on the book, and the marking 
must be done in addition; the labels come off easily and must 
be replaced constantly. 

The advantage of labels is that they are easier to print on 
than the book cloth, especially when it is soiled, and if poor 
marking has been done, it may be more easily remedied than 
when placed directly on the book. 

If labels are used, the book must be carefully prepared. A 
guide card is cut with a hole the exact size of the label, at the 
height it should be placed on the book. The guide is placed over 
the book and the sizing is removed with ammonia. The label is 
then put on and rubbed down very carefully. Each label is placed 
in the same relative position two inches from the bottom of the 
book. Round labels are usually used, and those of cloth are pre- 
ferred. Those with colored edges should never be used. 


Many librarians mark directly on the book, using white 
marking ink for dark books and India ink for very light ones. 
Special marking ink should be used, not writing ink, which is 
too thin. 

The chief difficulty in marking with white ink comes from the 
ink clogging on the point of the pen. This may be obviated by 
working with two pens, keeping one in water when not in use. 
The ink should be well shaken before beginning work and should 


be thick enough to make a clear mark the first time. Water may 
be added to thin, when needed. If faint, the marking may be 
traced over, but the effect is not so good. If a mistake is made, 
the mark may be wiped off with a damp cloth. 

If the books are very soiled, the place to be marked is first 
cleaned with benzine. 

If labels have been taken off, the book must sometimes be 
shellacked and thoroughly dried before marking. 

On leather back books the place to be marked must first be 


The writer sits at right angles to the work. A short, thick 
penholder is used and is held between the first and second 
fingers. Placing the book with front cover on the edge of the 
table, the book is supported by the left hand, while being marked. 
A guide card is used to insure uniformity of position of the 
marks on the books. A square is cut in the guide card large 
enough for the number. The guide card is used for each book, 
placing it even with the bottom. The call number is blocked at 
the left side that is, the first letter of the book number placed 
directly under the first figure of the class number. 

Library or conventional figures are used. See page 94. 


After the marking is dry the number is lightly coated with 
thin white shellac, to prevent its rubbing off, or the entire back 
may be coated. If more convenient, this can be done after 
the books are returned to the shelves. 

13. Arrangement 

Books are arranged on the shelves by classes in numerical or- 
der, running from left to right down the tier. In each class they 
are arranged alphabetically by author's name. 

Fiction which is not usually given a number, but only marked 
with author's initial, may be shelved before the 8oo's or at the 
end. It is arranged alphabetically by author's name. 

If the public library is housed with the school library, the 
public library fiction is arranged on separate shelves, not with the 


high school fiction. It is usually placed near the entrance most 
used by the public library patrons. 

In public libraries what is known as the "ribbon" arrange- 
ment of fiction is sometimes used. The fiction is placed on the 
top shelf, running around the room, with the classed books ar- 
ranged in regular order below. 

Grade books are kept in separate tiers of shelves. Here the 
numerical order is sometimes changed to place the books in yo28 
First reading, y2OO Mythology and y398 Fairy stories, which are 
read by the smaller children, on the lowest shelves. 

Reference books : i.e. those to be consulted for specific points 
of information, often in sets, such as encyclopedias, are placed 
on separate shelves; the handbooks and books of general in- 
formation are usually kept near the librarian's desk. 


Books assigned by a teacher for special use of a class for a 
limited time are placed ,on special shelves during that period 
and their use is restricted to pupils in that class. 

Shelves near the librarian's desk are commonly used, for 
purposes of supervision. The shelf is marked with the sub- 
ject and course designations, e.g. English II. A complete list 
is posted near the shelf or kept in the librarian's desk in a 
folder. Each book has a temporary book card of unusual 
color marked Reserve in large letters, or a temporary date slip 
marked similarly is pasted in the book. These books may 
not be taken from the room, except for overnight, i.e., from 
hour of closing school in the afternoon until hour of opening 
next morning. When the time of special use is over, the books 
are returned to their regular place on the shelves. 

Pamphlets are filed in a vertical file or in pamphlet boxes. If 
in boxes, they are classified and arranged on the shelves with 
the books on the same subject. Suggestions as to treatment of 
pamphlets will be found on p. 72. 

When organizing, one-fourth of the space on each shelf is 
left to allow for growth. If shelves are filled full at the begin- 
ning, it soon becomes necessary to shift books and makes much 
unnecessary work. 

A book support should be supplied for each shelf to keep the 
books upright on the shelves. This is a great saving of wear on 


the books. All books should be placed flush with the edge of 
the shelf. Neat shelves add very greatly to the attractiveness of 
the room. 

14. Shelf Marking 

As an aid to finding books quickly, each shelf is marked with 
number of the class and the subject: e.g., 320 Government. 

A label is made for every class in which there are books, and 
where there are several shelves of the same class each is marked. 

The simplest form of shelf marker is made of a strip of white 
Bristol board or catalog card, a little narrower than the shelf. 
The number and subject of the class are printed with rubber 
type or by hand, and it is fastened to the shelf edge with small 
upholstery tacks. 

Shelf label holders may be bought and tacked to the shelf 
edge. Other holders of olive Japanned tin fit over the shelf. 
These are convenient because they can easily be moved. In or- 
dering, the thickness of the shelf must always be given. Many 
librarians used gummed letters and figures, placing them directly 
on the shelf edge. 


This is neatly printed or typed and posted near the shelves as 
an aid in finding books. A chart of the classification and one 
describing the catalog is available. 

15. Checking the School Lists 

If the books are classified according to a school library list, 
the list itself will serve very well as an index to the library. 
Checking the classed part will show what books the library has 
on a subject and in a list, giving grades, for what pupils they 
are suited. This gives not only an index to the library, but is an 
aid in selection of books. 

Checking the author and title index gives additional help in 
finding books. A checked school list is more useful than a 
hastily compiled card index made by someone who has not been 
trained for this work. 

1 6. Charging System 

If the library is conducted in a business-like way, any book- 
belonging to the library may be located quickly. If it is in the 


library it should be found on the shelf in its proper class number, 
if it is out, there should be a record showing to whom loaned 
and when it is due. This record is called the Charging record. 

For school libraries, a charging system must be used that is 
simple, speedy, reliable but flexible. 


This is the simplest form and is commonly used in country 
schools. It is best for this purpose, when teachers are not 
trained to prepare and use the card system. A book may be 
bought for this purpose or a blank book ruled. 

The charging record is never kept in the accession book. 

The information a charging book should give is as follows : 
Title of book; To whom loaned; Date loaned; Date returned; 
Condition, or Fines. 


This system is installed as soon as there is a Teacher- 
librarian or Librarian. 

Some schools use slips for the charging of books, making out 
one each time a book goes out. This method takes more time 
than making the book card once for all. 

An adaptation of what is known as the Newark charging sys- 
tem is commonly used in schools. The essentials are: (i) the 
book pocket pasted in the book; (2) the book card; (3) the 
dating slip, and (4) the charging tray with date guides. 

1. The book pocket should bear the name of the school 
library stamped or printed upon it at the bottom. At the top 
(left side) the call number should be printed and the accession 
number at the right. 

2. The book card represents the book in the library, when 
the book itself has been borrowed. The author's name, brief 
title, call number and accession number are written or typed 
upon it in the order shown on page 61. 

The information is given briefly, but must so represent the 
book that it cannot be mistaken for any other. Title should be 
exact, and volume or copy number may be added if desired. 
When the book is on the shelf, the book card is in the book 
pocket. When it is out, it is in the charging tray. 

3. The date slip is used to show the borrower when the book 
must be returned. This may be a slip of paper pasted on the fly 


leaf opposite the book pocket or a slip the size of a book card 
put in the book pocket when the book card is taken out. In 
either case the date the book is due is stamped on the dating 
slip with a rubber stamp. 


The book card is taken from the book pocket and on it is 
written the name of the borrower and the date due. This date 
is also written or stamped on the date slip, as a guide to the bor- 
rower in the return of the book. If the date slip is loose it is 
slipped into the book pocket. 




Pufclio School Library 
Delano ,Minn. 



In loaning books for over night, the book card is taken out 
and a slip marked Reserve and date due placed in book pocket. 


The following account of the charging system of the Girls' 
High School, Brooklyn, is quoted from Ward. The High School 



an American 


Date s\ip 

Bate Due 

Jl 2 5 1; 


"The essentials are the book card and time cards of three 
colors, brown, pink and blue, which are employed according to 
whether a book is lent for a study period, for overnight, or for 
two weeks, and which bear printed information to that effect. In 
charging books for over night or for a single study period the 
reader's name and room number are entered upon the book card, 
and a pink or brown time card is slipped into the book pocket. 
No dating is done. If the book is needed for two or more study 
periods the librarian writes *5th' or '6th' on the brown card be- 
fore slipping it into the pocket. When a book goes out for two 
weeks, the date due is added to a blue time card and to the book 
card. Circulation is counted each period." 


Books loaned in sets to teachers for class-room use should be 
charged as a collection to the teacher, who in turn will assume 
responsibility for the charging to individual students if any books 
are taken out. For this reason, a book card must be left in the 
book when it goes to the class-room. A duplicate card is made 
for each book and kept in the library, the whole group of cards 
being kept together as a charge against the teacher. The books 
are returned as a group, at which time the count of circulation 
is made from the record on the cards. 


In preparation of books for the binder, the book cards are 
taken out and the date sent and the name of the binder written 
upon them. They are filed in the charging tray in front of guide 
card marked "Bindery." 


In charging pictures, they are given to the borrower in an 
envelope or folder, large enough to take them without folding. 
A charging slip is made giving subject of pictures, number, 
name of borrower and date due. A slip bearing the date they 
are due is attached to the folder. 


Those in covers heavy enough to carry a book pocket are 
treated like a book. 


They are usually loaned for a shorter period than a book, 
but demand will determine this. 

Very thin pamphlets or leaflets are treated as pictures, 
described above. 


The length of time for which a book is loaned depends upon 
local needs. Reserve books are not loaned for a longer period 
than over night, or from Friday to Monday. 

The usual period for books of home reading is two weeks. 

Teachers are allowed to borrow books for class room use for 
an unlimited period, subject to recall of any book if it is greatly 

Every library should have rules regulating the length of time 
a book may be kept, and the rules should be printed in the hand- 
book of the library, on the book plate, or framed and hung in 
the library. 

The following rules are suggestive : 


Any pupil is entitled to draw books by making application to 
the librarian. Any resident of the district may borrow books not 
needed in school work. 

Books may be retained two weeks, and may be renewed once 
for the same period, unless reserved for another borrower. 

Suitable fines (not more than one cent a day, or five cents a 
week), should be paid for books kept over time, and for loss or 
injury of books beyond reasonable wear. 

No books may be taken from the library by any person with- 
out being charged. 


Since the time when books must be charged is the time when 
the librarian is busy assisting students to find books, the stu- 
dents should be taught to do the charging of their own books; 
that is, write their name on the book card and the date due, on 
the book card and on the date slip, and deposit the cards in a 




In the charging system here described no record is shown 
of what books any student has drawn. Where this informa- 
tion is desired a borrower's card must be used. 

In the Newark system, the borrower has a card which he 
takes to the library when he wishes to draw a book. This is 
stamped with the date due and the number or name of the 
book written on it. 

Where the library is used by the public, borrowers' cards 
may be used for the town people, but are not always felt to be 
necessary if the users are few. 

In the larger schools, borrower's records include the ap-. 
plication card, application file, registration book and borrower's 
card. On the application card, the student writes his name, 
his address, and home room number, and secures a teacher's 
endorsement. The information on this card is entered in a 
registration book with numbered lines, the number of the line 
is printed on the application card, and on the borrower's card. 

The application cards are filed alphabetically by name 
of student. 

The borrower's card given to the student bears the name 
of the school library, his name and registration number and the 

Re-registering is done every year. 

In borrowing a book, the borrower gives his number and 
name, the librarian verifies the information from the borower's 
file, and the number is written on the charging slip and book 
card opposite the date due. 


The number of books loaned gives an idea of the use of 
the library, though it does not always show it fully. It is 
therefore worth while to keep this record for a report on the 
library. When the time of issuing books is over, the cards are 
counted and a record made. For the small libraries the head- 
ings: High school classed; High school fiction; Grade classed; 
Grade fiction will serve. 

Since this information is given on the charging cards, this 



work is simply done. The blank, called "Record of books 
loaned in school libraries," is arranged with spaces for these 
items, for every day of the 10 months' school year. This blank 
should be provided and kept accurately. It will pay for itself 
in the saving of time in counting up the number of books 
loaned throughout the year. 

In the larger schools or in those schools connected with 
a public library system, this record is kept more minutely by 
classes, on circulation statistics forms used in public libraries. 


Second Month M. To -W. Th. 


The usual way of filing is by date due either by class, acces- 
sion number, or alphabetically by author's name. Using this 
method, overdue books are easily noted. However, if a par- 
ticular book is desired, it takes some time to locate it as the file,s 
for each day must be scanned. 

Filing alphabetically by author's name, instead of by date, 
makes it easier to find a particular book, but overdue books 
are hard to trace. 


When a book is returned, the date on the date slip is a guide 
to the librarian in finding the book card in the charging tray. 
No stamping is necessary. The book card is put in the book 
pocket and the book is returned to the shelf. 

If a borrower's card is used, the date the book is returned 
is stamped or written upon it, or the date stamped out. 


17. Shelf Listing 

A shelf list is a card list of books in the library, the cards 
being arranged as the books are arranged on the shelves, i.e., 
by classes, and alphabetically in each class, by author. 

It is an index to the shelves; it shows the number of books 
the library has in each class and forms a subject index to the 
classed books and an author list for the fiction. It -bears the 
same relationship to the library that the table of contents does 
to a book. 


To make a shelf list, only one card is made for each book; 
it therefore takes much less time than the making of a full 

It is more economical of service to do the other work of 
organization first, that the books may be put into circulation. 

Shelf listing is done one class at a time. All the books in 
the class that are on the shelf are listed and the charging tray 
examined, to see if any of the books of the class are out. As 
they are returned, the shelf list card is made before the books 
are returned to the shelf. A mark is put in the book to show 
that it has been shelf-listed. 


White cards of standard make are used. These are of rag 
stock and are accurately cut and well finished to give good 
writing surface. 

Standard cards are approximately 3x5 but to centimeter 
scale, and are punched for round rods. They should be of 
light or medium weight. 

Ruled cards should be bought for hand-written cards 
and plain cards, for those to be typewritten. On the ruled 
cards the vertical red lines indicate the position for the infor- 
mation. The author's name is placed at the first red line; the 
title at the second red line. These are called first and second 
indentions. If the work is done on the typewriter, care must 
be taken to get the information in the same relative position. 

Card attachments may be bought for the machine, to assist 
in uniformity. Each card is put in the typewriter at the same 


place. Writing is begun two single spaces from the top. If 
call number is begun at I, author's name is placed at 8; title at 
12. If carried over to next line, writing is begun at 8. The 
numbers 8 and 12 correspond to the first and second indentions 
on the ruled cards. 


Call number is placed in the upper left corner; the class 
number on the same line with the author's name, author's 
initial, author number or book number on the second line directly 
under the first figure of the class number; author's name, on 
top line, beginning at first indention; title, on second line, be- 
ginning at second indention. Author's name is given briefly, 
surname first, followed by comma, then forename if but one, 
initials if more than one. This is called secondary fullness of 
author's name. If the book is by two authors, names of both 
are given, connected by &; e.g., Beard, C. A. & Beard, M. R. 
If book is by more than two authors, the name of the first is 
given, in secondary fullness "& others." If the book is a com- 
pilation, "ed" is added one-half inch after editor's name. In 
the case of classics which have been edited or translated by 
different persons, the original author's name is used for entry. 

Title is given briefly; enough, however, to clearly distin- 
guish the book. If the book has been edited by some one of 
importance the title statement includes "ed. by ." 


To correspond with the arrangement on the shelves, shelf 
list cards for 921, Individual biography, have on the top line, 
second indention, the name of the person written about; on 
the second line, first indention, author's name; on the third line, 
second indention, title of the book, if distinctive. Call number 
is placed as on any shelf list card. 


320 Beard, E. A. 

B American citizenship 




yQ2i Mendlessohn 

M Isaacs, A. S. 

Step by step 

The accession number is placed under the call number, leav- 
ing one line space between. 

If the book is in more than one volume the accession numbers 
are placed in columns, followed by volume numbers. Duplicate 
copies are treated in the same way. Accession numbers should 
not be grouped. 


The shelf list is 1 sometimes used as a substitute for the acces- 
sion book. This seems particularly desirable in organizing a 
large, old school library where no business record has been kept 
of the purchase price, etc. In this case the shelf list is made as 
soon as the books are classified. 

As new books are shelf listed, publisher, date of purchase and 
price are included on the shelf list card. 


The number of items on the cards is counted and an entry 
made on a guide card filed in front of shelf list, e.g. : 

Number of books recorded on shelf list Date 

When new books are added, make entry on the same card. e.g. : 

Books added Date 


The library is not equipped for fullest service until a catalog 
is provided which lists all the material available. The catalog 
bears the same relationship to the library that an index does to 
a book. 

The catalog should answer the questions: 

What books by a certain author are in the library? 
Has the library a book of a certain title? 


What material on any subject the library contains, whether 
whole book or part. 

It should also give information about the book, such as 
edition, publisher, and date of publication. 


Printed catalogs 

A printed catalog is out of date as soon as it is printed, and 
is never complete. This and the expense of printing discounts 
the advantage of being able to use it away from the library. 

Card catalog 

This is the modern form of index to libraries and may be 
constantly kept up to date. The dictionary arrangement is used; 
that is, author, title and subject cards are arranged in one 
alphabet like the words in a dictionary. 


This is a technical piece of work and should not be under- 
taken without study of cataloging methods and definite instruc- 

It is a waste of time and money for the untrained person to 
attempt to make a catalog. Librarians in school libraries should 
have at least the course offered in elementary cataloging in a 
summer school of library training before attempting this work. 


Since school library lists are arranged by subject and have 
full author and title indexes they will serve very well as substi- 
tutes for a catalog of books in a school library. The titles found 
on the shelves should be checked on the list in the subject part 
and also in the author and title index. 


A shelf list is a list on cards of all the books in the library, 
arranged in the same order in which the books are placed on 
the shelves, that is, by class numbers. It shows how many books 
the library has on any subject. It may serve somewhat as a sub- 
ject catalog, of all the books on a subject, if an alphabetical in- 
dex of subjects is also provided to help those who are un- 
familiar with the numbers used for the different subjects. It 


does not by any means take the place of the subject catalog 
which indicates all the material on a subject in the library, 
whether a whole book or a part. 


Printed catalog cards may be bought for school libraries 
These are of two kinds : 

Indexer cards 

The Indexers, 5526 So. Park Avenue, Chicago, have cataloged 
a large number of titles in civics, history and other subjects ex- 
tensively used in schools. It is their policy to make a large 
number of cards for each book to bring out under a suitable 
subject heading, every bit of material. The cards are marked 
with the subject heading and are sent accurately arranged for 
placing in the card catalog cabinet. The classification or call 
number must be added. The price is by card and the cost of 
cataloging each book will depend on the number of different 
topics, or subjects, of which the book treats. 

Library of Congress cards 

Printed cards may be obtained from the Library of Con- 
gress. These give very full information concerning the book. 
The cards are not filled out for use in a dictionary catalog. 
Each card is identical and to adapt for dictionary catalog use, 
call number, title and subjects must be added at the top, and 
the cards filed. To adapt them requires trained ability and they 
are not recommended for schools where there is not a trained 

Ordering Library of Congress cards 

If cards are ordered by Library of Congress number the 
cost is less than when author and title are given. Prices 
and information as to the procedure in ordering cards should 
be obtained from the Library of Congress Card division. 
The order number for L. C. cards is given in the A. L. A. 
Catalog, A. L. A. Book list, "Library books for High Schools." 
(U.S. Bureau of Education Bulletin, 1917, no. 41). Thus the 
order number for Holland Builders of United Italy, is 
8-24568/11 and the number following the slanting line indicates 


that eleven cards are needed to fully catalog the book. Since 
this is a book of collective biography, more cards are needed 
than for a book largely or wholly on one subject. In the latter 
case, one card for author, one for title and one for subject is 
sufficient. Order numbers for L. C. cards are also given in the 
United States Catalog, and the Cumulative Book Index found 
in the larger public libraries. 

Library of Congress cards are used with success in larger 
libraries where a trained cataloger is employed. Unless there is 
some one in the school who understands how to adapt them, 
it is a waste of money to purchase them. 


The making of a card catalog is sometimes regarded as an 
interesting piece of work, merely as a task. It can only be 
effectual when the cataloger understands clearly the func- 
tion of the catalog in the school library, that it must make 
all the material in the books in this particular library quickly 
available and that no card should be made, and no information 
put on any card that does not contribute to this purpose. 

A well made catalog is of infinite value in school library work. 
With a good catalog a small collection of books will give better 
service than a large collection without one. It is obvious that 
fuller cataloging is needed when the collection is small than 
when there are a great many books. 

New books are much easier to catalog than old ones, which 
often involve many problems. Unless the old book is of known 
value to the library, time should not be spent in cataloging it. 

Place in the routine 

In the organization of an old library, the other parts of the 
work, classification, .accessioning, charging system, marking 
and shelving should be finished before the work of cataloging 
is begun, so that the use of the books may not be delayed. 
One class should be done at a time, in the order in which the 
material is needed. A check should be made in the book and 
on the shelf list card when the book is cataloged. This is 
desirable in the event that the work begun may not be com- 
pleted by the same person. All records should show, at all 
times, the state of the work. 



The same kind of cards are used for cataloging as for the 
shelf list. See page 76. 

In making typewritten catalog cards it is desirable to have 
a bichrome, red and black typewriter ribbon, so that the sub- 
ject heading may be put on in red. Some libraries also give 
call number in red 

Cataloging details and practice 

If the catalog is to be useful, the person making it must be 
accurate, neat, have a knowledge of the whole field of books, 
be acquainted with reference books, have good judgment, and 
the technical training necessary to get all of the above. No 
book can take the place of instruction and practice under 

Reference books for catalogers 

Biographical and other reference books must be consulted 
to determine correct form and fullness of author's names. The 
A. L. A. catalogs and the A. L. A. book list follow library 
usage. For names not included there, the following books are 
useful : 

Century Book of names and New International encyclopedia 
for all nationalities. 

Dictionary of national biography, index and epitome; and 
Who's Who, for English, and Who's Who in America, for 

The usage of each biographical dictionary in form of entry 
must be taken into account and the form chosen made to con- 
form to cataloging rules. 


The most complete manuals of cataloging rules for the small 
library are Hitchler Cataloging for small libraries, A. L. A. 
pub. bd., 78 E. Washington st., Chicago, $1.25, and A. L. A. 
Catalog rules; author and title entries, 1908, A. L. A. pub. bd., 
60 cts. These should be bought before the work of cataloging 
is begun. This discussion does not attempt to include all the 
rules for cataloging, but only to lay emphasis on certain 
essentials and adaptations for school library uses. 


The rules covering all points should be studied, in relation 
to the particular library to be cataloged. After a rule is 
adopted it should be consistently followed in all similar cases, 
and it should be marked as a guide to succeeding librarians. 

In simplified cataloging, only the essential items are given. 
These must be carefully chosen for accuracy and exactness of 
information, and represent the book so clearly that it may 
not be mistaken for any other. The judgment to choose the 
essentials comes from training and accurate instruction. 


Each entry card bears the call number, showing the location 
of the book on the shelf and thus connecting the classification 
and cataloging records. 

Fiction usually has no. call number. 

The information is placed on the cards in the same relative 
positions as on the shelf list cards, call number at left; au- 
thor's name, inverted, at first indention; title begins at second 
indention, second line, returning to first indention if more than 
one line long. For example see page 77-8. 


No words are capitalized excepting the first word, and 
proper names. 


Rules are given in the A. L. A. Rules. Avoid double 
punctuation. Period is not used after author's forenames in 
heading, but is used at the end of the title. Semi-colon is used 
between the title and the secondary, or explanatory title. 


To give the information desired, three kinds of cards are 
essential: Author, title, and subject cards. 

Author card 

This is called the main entry card and is the one which repre- 
sents the book most fully. It is a transcript of the title page. 

The simplest form of author is made for fiction, and gives 
author, title or titles, only. 


The main entry card for all classed books, i.e., all books other 
than fiction, gives on the face of the card, the call number; 
author's name in full; title; imprint, i.e., publisher and date. 
When of special importance edition statement; collation; series 
note ; and contents are also given. 

To insure uniformity, the author's name as given on the title 
page must be verified with the catalog if the library has one, or 
with the reference books. 

The making of the author card involves choice of form of 
name in a number of cases: 

Anonymous classics: e.g. Mother Goose, Arabian nights 

Compound names: e.g. Lloyd-George 

Corporate names 

Married women's names 

Names with prefixes 


The rules for these entries are given in Hitchler Cataloging 
for small libraries. The usage of "Library books for High 
schools" (U.S. Bureau of ed. Bulletin, 1917, no. 41.) should be 

Conforming to the rules for the particular kind of name the 
usual practice is to enter a book under the real author's name in 
the best known form, placing the surname at the first indention, 
followed by a comma and the forenames commonly used. Un- 
usual practice is to enter a book under the real author's name in 
Hugo, Victor, not Hugo, Victor Marie. 


If two authors have worked equally upon a book, the names 
of both are given : name of the first author in full, followed by 
&, and the name of second author in secondary fullness, i.e., 
surname and initials. With three authors, the name of the first 
"& others" is given. 


When one person has gathered and edited the work of several 
writers, the name of the editor is used as author. The abbrevia- 
tion "ed." is placed one-half inch after the name. 



State and national publications and those of societies are en- 
tered under the official name of the body which issues them : 
e.g., the book on Diseases of the horse, issued by the Bureau of 
animal industry at Washington, would be cataloged thus : 

(Author) U.S. Animal industry bureau 

(Title) Diseases of the horse 


When choice is made of form for author's name, a reference 
card is placed in the catalog directly from the unused name to 
the form chosen for entry, e.g.: 

Twain, Mark, pseud. See 
Clemens, Samuel Langhorne 


The title is given as it appears on the title page, omitting the 
initial article unless such omission destroys the sense. In the 
case of well known titles, portions preliminary to the real title 
may be omitted, such as (Personal history of) David Copper- 
field. All the title used is to be written in one sentence, separat- 
ing secondary or explanatory portions by a semicolon. The title 
is to be followed by a period. If the book is notably illustrated 
this information is given as a portion of the title, separated by 
a semicolon, e.g., Alice in Wonderland; illus. by Arthur Rack- 
ham. Similarly, the statement regarding editor or translator, if 
important, is given, using the abbreviations : ed. & tr. 


Many books bear on the title page a statement regarding 
edition. If the copyright dates show that the book has been re- 
copyrighted it is evident that new material has been added and 
that the book is a new edition, and note of this should be made. 
Edition statement follows the title and is placed one-half inch 
after it, on the card, e.g.: 3d ed. rev. & enl. Series statements 
given as edition are disregarded, e.g.: Camelot edition. 




On all classed books, imprint, which is a statement of pub- 
lisher and date of publication, is given on the main card, one- 
half inch after title or after edition statement. Publisher's name 
is given in same abbreviated form as used in accessioning, that 
is, first name in a firm. If both English and American firms are 
given, the American is used. Place of publication is not given 
for well known publishers. Publisher and date are separated by 
a comma, unless a period used for abbreviation takes its place. 
Statement is finished with a period, e.g., Houghton, 1912. 


Give last copyright date. If no copyright date, give title page 


Collation includes pages, volumes, illustrations. In school 
library cataloging, paging is not usually given. Volumes (when 
more than one) are noted for all books whether fiction or 
classed. Place volume statement one-half inch after imprint, 
e.g., 2v. If illustrations are valuable but are not by an artist of 
sufficient importance to be mentioned in the title, they are noted 
as part of the collation (e.g., 2v. illus.), using the term to cover 
several kinds of illustrations. If the book has only one kind of 
illustration, that kind is mentioned, e.g.: maps. 


If a book is one of an important series, one that adds value 
or authority to the work, a series note is added on the main 
card of a classed book. This information follows the last 
group of information on the card and is separated from it by 
one-half inch space. The statement is enclosed in ( ) and 
briefly given, omitting the word series unless necessary to the 
sense, e.g.: (American men of letters). 


Important information about the book, not covered by the 
title, is given in a note. The usual cases are sequels, or 


changed titles. Space of one line is left between main body of 
title and the note, beginning note at the second indention. 


The last group of information given on the face of the 
main card is the contents note. "Contents" is given for short 
stories, plays, collective biography, works in sets where the 
general title does not show the scope of the separate volume. 
The word Contents is placed on the second line below the main 
body of the title, at the second indention, with a colon. Chap- 
ter headings follow immediately. Each title begins with a cap- 
ital and each item is separated from the next by a period and 
dash. If each chapter is by a different author, the name of the 
author is included. 

Giving Contents for sets in volumes, the word Contents is 
placed as usual on the second line below the title at the second 
indention, and on the next line between the first and second 
indentions, the volume number is given, the title beginning at 
the second indention, followed by the author's name. If one 
volume of the set is missing, space for the contents of that 
volume is left. No writing should be done on the card lower 
than the line above the hole, continuing contents on second 
card. The cards are numbered and the first card bears at the 
bottom, the statement: See next card. On the succeeding cards, 
call no., author's name and Contents cont'd are given. 


These are marks placed on the back of the author or main 
entry card to show what additional cards have been made for 
that particular book. In case of a book being withdrawn from 
the library, all cards would need to be removed from the 
catalog, hence the convenience of having them indicated on the 
author card. Since tracings are for the cataloger's use only, 
and would be confusing to the public, they are placed on the 
back. They are so placed that they may be seen without re- 
moving the card from the drawer, "t" indicates that title card 
has been made; subject words are written out. 


Secondary entries 

All cards made in addition to the author or main entry card 
are called secondary entries. The information on these is 
given in briefer form. The author's name is placed on the 
second line, and is given in secondary fullness, i.e., initials are 
used instead of full name, if the author has more than one. 

Title card or title entry 

This answers the question: Is a certain book in the library? 
Since the majority of persons think of books by title, it is 
necessary to make title cards for all the books which might 
be asked for by title. If the title of the book is the same as 
the subject heading the title card is omitted. If the secondary 
title is distinctive and the book might be known by it, title 
card for this would be made also. On this card, call number 
is given, as usual, brief title placed on the top line, second in- 
dention, omitting the articles for titles in English unless neces- 
sary to the sense, in which case it is enclosed in ( ). For 
foreign titles, article should be given, e.g., (L)'avare. The 
author's name is given on the second line, surname beginning 
at the first or author indention, comma, forename in full if but 
one, initials if more than one forename. Date is not necessary 
on title card. If more than one volume, the statement follows 

Subject card or subject entry 

This card answers the question: Has the library any ma- 
terial on a certain subject? A subject card is made for every 
book about any subject, and as many subject cards may be 
made for any book as are necessary to list it under all the 
different subjects of which it treats. Occasionally subject 
cards are made for literary forms or kinds of books such as 
atlases and encyclopedias. 

Subject cataloging is the most useful of all cataloging be- 
cause it makes all the material in the library available. It is 
also the most difficult as it requires a wide knowledge of books 
and subjects, and their relationship; good judgment, discrimina- 
tion in the use of terms, and technical knowledge of cataloging 
practices and cataloging tools. 



Choice of a subject heading for a book in any library will 
be determined (i) by the content or subject-matter of the book, 
and (2) by the needs of the particular library. 

When working with new books, the subject heading would 
be chosen at the time the classification number is decided upon. 
The library must own a subject heading book and when a 
heading is chosen from it, the word is checked as a guide for 
future use. 

Standard guides for subject headings are: 

A.L.A. Guide to subject headings. A.L.A. pub. $2.50 

Mann. A.L.A. headings for juvenile catalogs. A.L.A, 

pub. $1.50 

A. L. A. Book list. Subject index. A. L. A. pub. 25c 

For new subjects the Reader's guide to periodical literature 
is useful. 

Discussion of subject cataloging, including choice of head- 
ings, forms of headings and country sub-divisions, is found in 
Hitchler Cataloging for small libraries. This should be care- 
fully studied. 

Personal names, geographical names, names of months, days, 
processes in arithmetic, and parts of speech are not included in 
the A. L. A. Subject headings. 


Careful choice of subjects is necessary, to bring out all the 
material in the books. 

The title page, table of contents and introduction are exam- 
ined and the book scanned to find out what it is about. The 
classification number gives some indication of the content, but 
classification confines the book to one particular place or sub- 
ject, and as many subject headings may be chosen as there are 
different subjects treated in the book. 

To answer the question: What is the book about? the most 
specific term is chosen ; for example, having a book about Flow- 
ers only, this word would be used as a subject heading rather 
than the term Botany. 

If a book treats of two subjects which are similar, but not 
expressed by the same or synonymous terms, subject cards are 


made for both. All words used as subject headings are verified 
with the subject heading book that the work may be kept uni- 
form. Exactness in the use of terms must be cultivated. For 
example, the heading Books and reading would not be used for 
Ward Practical use of books and libraries, which is about 
Reference books. 

Personal names used as subject headings, as in the case of 
biography and criticism, must be verified as if they were author's 
names, in the biographical reference books. 

Official names of societies and organizations are determined 
from such usual reference books as the World almanac and the 

Geographical names must also be verified for form and 
spelling. This verification is done once for all the first time the 
term is used and note made in the subject heading book. 

The A. L. A. Book list indicates subject headings under each 
title listed. The needs of the particular library will determine 
whether more subject cards should be made. The librarian 
should be thoroughly familiar with the course of study in the 
school and in cataloging the library, list all material that would 
be useful. 


Call number is given as usual, the subject heading sometimes 
in red, or in black, on top line at second indention. Author's 
name on second line at first indention, in secondary fullness. 
Title, imprint and other information is given in the same fullness 
as on the author or main card. 


When choice of term is made, a reference card is also made 
for the catalog directing from the term not used to the subject 
word under which all material is listed. These are of two 
kinds : 

(i) See reference 

These direct from other possible forms of a subject to 
the one used in the catalog. 

To illustrate : The A. L. A. Subject headings gives the 
term Farm implements and machinery. To enable one who 


might look under the heading Agricultural machinery to find 
the material the library contained on that subject, a reference 
card is made: 

Agricultural machinery. See 

Farm implements and machinery. 

See references are made for synonymous and also for op- 
posite terms. 
(2) See also references 

These direct to related subjects. A library may have a 
book covering the whole field of botany, including something 
on flowers. The subject heading for this book is, of course, 
Botany. It might also have a book dealing wholly with flow- 
ers, and for this the heading would be Flowers. To connect 
the two, or any subject and its sub-division also represented 
in the catalog a See also reference is made, e.g. : 

Botany. See also 

If red headings have been used on the subject cards, the 
same color is used for subject references. 


Cards are made for parts of books when the part is not in- 
dicated by the author, title or subject card for the whole book. 
These may be made for author, title or subject. The form for 
analytic entries is the same as for other author, title or subject 
cards,- with the additional statement giving the location and pag- 
ing for the part analyzed. See sample card, page 93-5. 

Series cards are sometimes made to list all the titles the 
library has of an important series. See examples in Hitchler 
Cataloging for small libraries, page 190. 

Editor or translator cards are not usually called for in school 
libraries. Illustrator cards are useful to show what work by an 
artist is in the library. 


The catalog cards are filed in a card cabinet, having drawers 
fitted with round rods, on which the cards may slip easily. If 
filed in drawers without rods, cards are easily lost and the 


catalog becomes incomplete and useless. See description of 
cases on p. 12. 

Room for growth of the catalog is allowed and markers in- 
serted in the label holders on the drawers. 

The shelf list and the catalog are always filed separately. 

Sample card to show placing of information 

Call Author 

No. Title Edition statement Imprint 

Collation Series note 

A u thor card Fictio n 

Blackmore, Richard Doddridge 

Lorna Doone; a romance of Exmoor. 


Author card Classed books 

973.2 Thwaites, Reuben Gold 

T42 The colonies, 1492-1750. Rev. ed. 

Longmans, c. 1910. Maps. (Epochs of 

American history.) 

Author card Contents 

814 Crothers, Samuel McChord 

C88 Among friends. Houghton, c. 1910. 

Contents: Among friends. Anglo-American 
school of polite unlearning. Hundred worst 
books In praise of politicians. My missionary 
life in Persia. The colonel in the theological 


Author card More than 2 authors 

580 Clements, Frederic Edward & others 
C59 Minnesota trees and shrubs; an illustrated 

manual of the native and cultivated woody 
plants of the state, by F. E. Clements, C. O. 
Rosendahl, and F. K. Butters. Univ. of 

Minn. 1912. 

(Minnesota Geological & natural history sur- 
vey. Reports: Botanical series, no. 9) 

Title card 

Lorna Doone. 
Blackmore, R. D. 

Subject card 

973.2 U.S. History Colonial period, 1607-1775 

T42 Thwaites, R. G. 

The colonies, 1492-1750. Rev. ed. 

Longmans, c. 1910. Maps. (Epochs of 

American history.) 

Subject card "Biography 

921 Clemens, Samuel Langhorne 

C Howells, W. D. 

My Mark Twain. Harper, 1910. 



Subject card Analytic 

814 Books and reading 

C Crothers, S. M. 

Among friends. CIQIO. 


Note Sample cards are not full size. 
L. B. Library hand card 



abcde fghtjkl m nop 

1234557890 & 

Take great pains to have all 
writing uniform in size, slant, 
spacing & forms of letters. 

Rules -for Arrangement of Cards in a Dictionary 
Catalog, by Bertha R. Barden 

A. General principles: 

I. Arrange all cards or entries, whether author, title, sub- 
ject or reference, alphabetically according to the 
English alphabet. 

2. Alphabet letter by letter to the end of the word, 
and then word by word, beginning with first word 
on top line. Every word to be regarded except the 
initial article e.g. Art of living At anchor 
Artist Atala 


3. Arrange "nothing before something." 

e. g. A. B. C. of electricity 
Brown, T. L. 
Brown, Thomas 

4. Consider punctuation, i.e., arrange first by that part 

of the heading which is before a mark of punctua- 
tion, then arrange when necessary by the part after 

the punctuation. 

e. g. Green, Thomas Art Medieval 

Green mountain boys Art in literature 

B. Special rules: 

1. Arrange separately names that differ slightly in 


e. g. Brown, W. G. 

Browne, Frances 

Browne, W. H. 

2. (a) Arrange German words spelled with the vowels, 

a, 6, u, as if they were spelled a, o, u. 
(b) Arrange German names written with ae, oe, ue, 
according to the spelling, 
e. g. Mueller, F. B. 

Muller, A. J. 

Muller, Max 

Munsterberg, Hugo 

3. Arrange all abbreviations as if spelled in full : Me., St., 

Dr., Mr., Mile., as Mac, Saint, " Doctor, Mister, 
Mademoiselle, etc. 

EXCEPTION: Names beginning with D' L' O' are ar- 
ranged as spelled. Initials standing for organiza- 
tions are treated as initials not as abbreviations 
e.g. The A. E. F., A. L. A. catalog. 

4. Numerals in titles of books should be treated as if 

written out in the language of the rest of the title, 
e.g. ipth century 


5. Disregard the apostrophe in the possessive case and in 

elisions which are to be treated as one word, 
e.g. Boy's & girl's book Who wrote the Bible? 

Boy's King Arthur Who's who 

Boys of '76 

6. Arrange names compounded with prefixes as single 


e. g. McAulay, A. Lacombe 

Macaulay, T. B. La Farge 

Mach, Ernst Lafayette 

McKenzie, Alexander La Fontaine 
MacKenzie, J. S. 

7. Arrange personal names compounded of two names, 

with or without a hyphen, as separate words, 
e.g. Lane, William 
Lane-Poole, Stanley 
Laneham, Robert 

8. Arrange proper names beginning with Saint, Sainte, as 

separate words. 

Saint-Amand, Imber de Saint-Pierre, Jacques de 

Saint-Beuve, C. A. 

St. John, T. M. 

St. Petersburg 

9. Arrange compound names of places as separate words. 

e. g. New, John New York 

New Hampshire Newark 

New legion of Satan Newfoundland 

New Sydenham society Newspapers 

10. Arrange as single, compound words which are printed 

as one: 

e. g. Bookselling 

ir. Arrange hyphened words as if separate, 
e. g. Book illustration 
Book review 


12. Arrange by forenames headings in which the surname 
is the same. 

(a) In a heading (not in a title) disregard the 

prefixes: Mrs., Sir, Gen., Capt., etc. 
e.g. Smith, Sir Charles 

Smith, Mrs. Elizabeth 

Smith, John 

(b) When surname and forenames are the same, 

arrange by whatever designation is used to 
distinguish the two persons. Arrange chron- 
ologically by date if there is no other distinc- 
e. g. Smith, John 

Smith, Capt. John 

13. When the same word is used for several kinds of 

headings, arrange alphabetically by the secondary or 
explanatory part of the headings, but keep in sep- 
arate groups, names of persons and subdivisions of 
a subject. 

e. g. Washington, Booker Art, G. tr. 

Washington, George Art (subject) 

Washington, George (subject) Art Criticism 
Washington, Conn. Art Study and teaching 

Washington, D.C. Art education 

Washington, Mount Art in flowers 

Washington (state) 
~ Washington, Treaty of 
Washington art association 
Washington monument 

14. Forenames used as headings precede the same names 

as surnames. 

e. g. James, St. the Apostle 

James, Henry 

James Pendergast free library 

15. Arrange forenames which are the same, alphabetically 

by the designation following. Disregard numerals 
in the alphabetical arrangement, but arrange a name 
followed by a numeral after one without. 



e. g. John, Saint John Bull 

John II, King of France John Halifax, gentleman 

John IV, King of Portugal John of Austria 

John, Eugenie John of Gaunt 

16. Arrange all subdivisions of a subject alphabetically. 

e. g. Art Ancient 

Art Bibliography 

Art French 

Art Study & teaching 

Exception: Under the subdivision History: 

(a) Arrange period divisions chronologically. 

(b) Arrange other divisions alphabetically 

before the chronological divisions, 
e. g. United States History Bibliography 
United States History Sources 
United States History Revolution 
United States History Civil war 

17. Under the names of places use a strict alphabetical 

arrangement for all subheads, whether names of 
official departments, subject divisions, or names of 
organizations entered under place, 
e. g, Washington (state). Constitution 

Washington (state). History 
\ Washington (state). State treasurer 
Washington (state). University 
Washington state historical society 

18. Arrange see also reference after the subject entries. 

19. Under an author's name adopt the following order: 

(a) Works of author, whether single or collected, 

arrange alphabetically by first word in title. 
Include works as joint author and works as 
editor or compiler. 

(b) A criticism of a particular work is filed behind 

the title criticised. 

(c) A translation is arranged alphabetically by its 

own title, not behind the original. 


20. Arrange Bible headings as follows: 

(a) Bible (texts) 
Bible (as subject) 

(b) Bible. N. T. (texts) 
Bible. N. T. (as subject) 

Bible. N. T. (single books or groups arranged 

(c) Bible. O. T. (same arrangement as urider 

N. T.) 

Guide cards: General rule: One to every twenty-five cards. 
Usually halves are used. Put whole word on guide card. 
Where headings are complicated as U. S. & Bible, put in cards 
more frequently. 


Much material is obtainable in bulletin, circular and pamphlet 
form which may be of help in the school library, by providing 
timely information on many subjects, at small cost. From the 
mass of such, only that of direct value to the library should 
be collected and saved. 


Government publications, particularly the reports and bulle- 
tins of the U.S. Bureau of education and the U.S. Depart- 
ment of agriculture should be regularly received. Bulletins of 
other government departments and bureaus may be asked for 
as needed. The A. L. A. Book-list includes quarterly an an- 
notated list of Government documents of especial value. 

Each department publishing bulletins furnishes them free as 
long as the supply lasts. When the department supply is ex- 
hausted and the pamphlet must be secured from the govern- 
ment printing office, a nominal sum must be paid. 

State documents, University bulletins, State society publica- 
tions are obtainable free. College catalogs are sent upon request. 

N. E. A. publications and bulletins, pamphlets of the Voca- 
tional bureau of Boston, bulletins of the Drama league of 
America, and those of other organizations are obtainable by 
joining the organization. 


Information regarding other organizations and societies and 
their bulletins may usually be obtained by writing the presi- 
dent. Addresses of societies are given in the World almanac. 

Miscellaneous material includes advertising pamphlets on 
specific products, industries or occupations, pamphlet biogra- 
phies issued by publishing companies, descriptive accounts of 
localities by government bureaus or railroads, pamphlets ex- 
plaining the work and organization of various societies. Lists 
of such material are issued from time to time in school jour- 
nals and library periodicals, and in bibliographies of books. 
Such lists are soon out of date as the material goes out of print 
in a short time. 


Unorganized pamphlet material is worse than useless because 
it becomes clutter in the library. Each piece must be classified 
as soon as it is received, and filed at once. Whatever method 
of filing is followed, it must be consistent, orderly and under- 


The vertical file is preferred because it provides the most 
substantial and permanent storage place for pamphlets. It 
keeps them clean and in good condition, and makes them easily 
accessible. The file should be of standard make and size 
and with good rolling equipment. For pamphlets and for pic- 
tures, especially when mounted, the legal size is better. For de- 
scription of cases see p. 12. 

Bulletin boxes are inexpensive and provide good temporary 
filing places for pamphlets and volumes of magazines. Pam- 
phlet binders are obtainable and make a good temporary case 
for single pamphlets, or a group which are to be classified, 
marked and shelved like books. 

Manual arts classes will often bind pamphlets for the li- 


Bulletins of which the library keeps a complete file are ar- 
ranged by serial number, e.g. Bureau of education bulletins. 



Subject arrangement 

Miscellaneous bulletins are arranged by subject or by classi- 
fication numbers. Using the first method, in the vertical 
file, each pamphlet is marked with the subject word. A folder 
or guide is used for each subject and all are arranged in 
alphabetical order. 

When the pamphlets are filed in boxes, they arc marked, on 
the outside with the subject and alphabetically arranged on the 
shelves, and kept as a separate collection. 

An index to the pamphlets in the box may be pasted on the 
outside of the box. 

Subject headings like those for cataloging may be chosen 
from the A. L. A. list of subject headings (see page 89), but the 
headings in the Readers' guide to periodical literature are more 
generally used. 

Classed arrangement 

To keep all the material the library has on a subject, whether 
books or pamphlets, together on the shelves, the classed and 
numbered arrangement is necessary. Each pamphlet is marked 
with the class number, boxes are labeled with number and sub- 
ject, and the boxes are placed on the shelves with the books bear* 
ing the same number. 

When the library contains a very large number of pamphlets 
on subjects like agriculture, or education, a more detailed clas- 
sification is necessary than for the books. Detailed classification 
schemes for agriculture and education are given on pages 51-5 
and 47-51 

When new pamphlets are received which supersede in inter- 
est and information those in the file, the old ones should be re- 
moved and destroyed. 


Pamphlets are never entered in the accession book until after 
they are permanently bound. A subject card for each pamphlet 
may be made for the catalog in the usual form. The designa- 
tion "pamph." is added to show that the material is in pamphlet 
box or file rather than in a book on the shelves, or sometimes 
a subject reference card is made for the catalog, giving the 
subject heading at the top in the usual way and placing helow 


th< statement "For pamphlet material on this subject see 
Vertical file," or if kept in pamphlet boxes on the shelves. 
"See Pamphlet box, class " 


No pamphlets should be taken from the room without being 
charged by the librarian. A temporary slip may be made giving 
the class number of the box and the number of pamphlets taken, 
the date and name of the borrower. See charging system, 
page 72. 

When pamphlets are assigned to a class for special work, they 
should be put in a temporary binder, like those used in magazine 
table use. 


Newspaper and periodical clippings are also cared for in 
the vertical file. They are pasted on cheap mounting paper 
cut to file size, several articles on the same subject, or succes- 
sive developments, being placed on the same sheet. 

The object of mounting is to keep them from going to pieces 
in handling, but little time or expense should be incurred. They 
are marked with the source and date, the subject heading and 
filed alphabetically between guides. 

Another method is to place clippings in envelopes which are 
marked with the subject word. 


A collection of pictures is of very great use in the school, 
and may be accumulated without great expense. Pictures from 
the Mentor magazine, clippings from illustrated magazines and 
worn-out books, and inexpensive prints will help 1 start the collec- 
tion. The pamphlet by Dana & Gardner, Aids in High school 
teaching: pictures and objects (H. W. Wilson co., 958-64 Uni- 
versity ave., New York) discusses the subject fully and gives 
addresses of sources. This is still valuable, though not all of 
the pictures are now available. 

Choice of pictures to buy or save will be governed by the 
needs of the particular school. In the lower grades, the demand 
is for pictures in connection with the language lesson and the 


reading; for the Junior high school, the project booklets call 
for infinite variety; industries, travel pictures, animal pictures; 
and in the High school, portraits of authors, pictures for 
design, and color for the art department, as well as all those 
needed to illustrate and make vital, the teaching of civics, 
history and English are wanted. 


As pictures are collected, they should be trimmed, classified 
by marking with subject word or by the regular classification 
system of the library, and put in envelopes marked with the sub- 
ject, or class number. The alphabetic arrangement by subject 
word is most commonly followed. 


Before they are allowed to circulate, the pictures must be 
mounted. For very light pictures or prints, construction paper 
may be used. This comes in sheets, 24x36, and will make eight 
mounts 9x12. It may be obtained in all colors, the price varying 
according to color. Heavier mounts are made from cover paper, 
mounting and press board, which come in large sheets of varying 

Uniform sizes of mounts are desirable because of the filing, 
the two sizes being commonly used to take care of all ordinary 
size pictures. They must be of a size that will file readily in the 
vertical file. Gray, tan or brown are the most desirable colors. 

The picture must be accurately placed on the mount and 
carefully pasted to the mount with thin photo paste, then placed 
under a press until thoroughly dry. 

Subject word or classification number should be added to 
facilitate filing. This may be placed on the front of the picture 
in the upper right corner. 

For charging pictures see directions on page 72. 


City System of School Libraries 

Adequate library service to the schools involves class room 
libraries, in the smallest schools. When a school has ten teachers 
or more there should be a library room in the building with a 
good collection for a grade school and a trained librarian. Such 
a library may serve also the adult residents in the neighborhood 
if local conditions warrant. 

The junior high school needs its own library. 

Each Junior and Senior high school should have the best 
sort of library equipment, books and service. 

Continuation schools should be served with deposit collec- 
tions carefully selected, and the night school program should 
include the library for the circulation of books to these stu- 
dents, with a specially chosen librarian. 

The city Teacher's College, with practice school must be pro- 
vided with libraries of model type, and trained librarians who 
can carry full courses in the use of libraries and children's read- 
ing for the prospective teachers. 


The supervisor of city school libraries serves as the connect- 
ing link betwen the various school libraries; advises on all tech- 
nical matters, the purchase of furniture and equipment, book se- 
lection and purchase, instruction courses, and all questions of ad- 
ministration. Conferences are held that the groups interested 
in the same phase may meet and discuss problems. 

The office of the Supervisor should have a book stock from 
which loans of books for special purposes may be made to the 
different schools. 

The supervisor advises with other supervisors of the school 
system with the city department of education and the Public 


library. The person holding this position should be chosen for 
qualities of training, experience, administrative ability and 
leadership that are considered in the selection of directors for 
the other departments in the school system and should have the 
same recognition by the school board and the public library. 


(Abridged from Certain Report on Library Organization and 

"Annual appropriation. The library should receive an annual 
appropriation of sufficient amount in addition to salaries to pro- 
vide means for the necessary correlation with other departments. 
This appropriation should be increased annually in direct ratio 
to the increasing library needs of each department and should 
include specific amounts for the maintenance and supervision of 
the library. 

The maintenance of the library should not depend on in- 
cidental sources of money, such as school entertainments and 
"socials." Students may be encouraged to raise funds for the 
library in appropriate ways, but these funds should be used only 
for such accessories as make the library more attractive . . . 
such as special equipment, finely illustrated editions; but the 
high school should not be forced to depend upon such means 
for necessary library service. 

The initial expense of the library includes (i) the salaries of 
the librarian and assistants, which should be on the same 
schedule as those of other teachers; (2) the cost of books and 

Funds for maintenance should provide for increase of sal- 
aries, additional books, periodicals, binding and other repairs, 
replacements, catalog cards, supplies, new equipment, etc. 

Each department should file with the librarian definite state- 
ments of needs as these needs are felt throughout the year, and 
the librarian should make disbursements according to these 

It should be borne in mind that the library is primarily for 
the students." 


Definite service is as necessary in the library as in any part 
of the school. Without it, the library can never be effective. 


The library represents an expenditure of money. This money 'is 
wasted unless the books bought are suited to the needs of the 
scnool and the ages of the pupils, are so arranged that they are 
quickly available, so recorded that they are not lost or misplaced, 
and tne use directed so that they become a definite part of school 

The library is a special department and must have specialized 
service. No part of a teacher's training includes a study of 
books from the library standpoint, or instruction in the care and 
management of libraries. The school must therefore provide a 
librarian as it provides a specially trained person for any other 
special department. 

The Librarian 

(Summary from Certain. Report on Library organization 
and equipment.) 

A. Qualifications. The librarian in the high school should 
combine the good qualities of both the librarian and the teacher, 
and must be able to think clearly and sympathetically in terms of 
the needs and interests of high school students. 

A wide knowledge of books, ability to organize material for 
efficient service, and successful experience in reference work 
should be demanded of every librarian. Most of all should the 
personality of the librarian be emphasized. Enthusiasm, power 
to teach and inspire, are as essential in the high school librarian 
as in the teacher. . . 

B. Professional requirements. The standard requirements 
for future appointments of librarians in high schools should be 
a college or university degree . . . together with at least one 
year of post-graduate training in an approved library school and 
one year's successful library experience ... in a library of 
standing. . . 

C. Salaries. The salary of a high school librarian should be 
adequate to obtain a person with the qualifications set forth in 
this report. It snould not be lower than that of the English 
teacher, but it may be necessary to pay a higher salary when 
there is an over supply of English teachers and an under supply 
of librarians. 

D. Administrative re quire me tits. . . Status. In high 
schools having heads of departments, the librarian should be 


head of the library department, with status equal to that of heads 
of other departments (The school librarian should be included 
in Teachers' pension acts). 

(1) CLERICAL WORK. Clerical work of the nature of office 
work should not be demanded of the librarian. Under no cir- 
cumstances should the librarian be expected to do clerical work 
properly required in the principal's office such as keeping records 
of attendance and keeping official records. . . 

Free textbooks should not be stored in the library and should 
not be handled by the library staff. 

(2) ADMINISTRATIVE WORK may be summarized as follows: 
Directing the policy of the library, selecting books, purchas- 
ing books, planning the room and its equipment, keeping records 
of expenses and planning the annual library budget, planning and 
directing the work of trained and student assistants, building up 
a working collection of pamphlets, clippings, and of illustrative 

The librarian should be present at all teachers' meetings held 
with reference to courses and policy governing instruction and 
should have the ability to work for and with teachers so well 
that mistakes in adaptation of book collections to needs may not 

(The librarian should by all means be present at teachers' 
meetings when regulations regarding the use of the library are 
being discussed.) 

(3) TECHNICAL WORK may be summarized as follows: The 
classifying, cataloging, indexing and filing of all printed matter 
so that it may be readily available for use; establishing a prac- 
tical charging system to keep track of books and other materials 
borrowed from the library; attending to the proper binding and 
rebinding of books ; keeping necessary records and statistics of 
additions to library, use of library, etc. 

(4) EDUCATIONAL WORK may be summarized as follows: 
Reference. Helping teachers and students to find suitable 

material on special topics, notifying teachers of new books and 
articles on professional subjects, looking up answers to questions 
which have come up in classroom or laboratory, preparing sug- 
gestive reference reading for the course of study. 

Instruction. Systematic instruction of students in the use of 
reference books and library tools such as card catalogs, indexes, 


etc. . . In this instruction, the relationship of the high-school 
library and the public library, and the relation of a library to 
life outside of school should be emphasized. 

Educational and vocational guidance. Cultural and inspira- 
tional work in widening the interests of the students and in 
cultivating a taste for good reading. This is done through 
posting interesting material on bulletin boards, compiling lists 
of interesting reading in books and magazines, through reading 
clubs and personal guidance of the reading of individual stu- 
dents. The librarian should also co-operate with vocational 
counsellors in aiding the students in the choice of vocations and 
should have on hand in the library, pamphlets, etc. on the occu- 

Junior high school librarian 

The librarian for this school should have educational and 
professional training, as thorough as that of the high school 
librarian and should have had good experience in the use of 
the simpler reference books and a knowledge of children's books. 
She should be interested in children and in helping them and 
have an understanding and sympathy with Junior high methods. 


To conform with school requirements in staff grading and 
certification, the High School librarian is sometimes designated 
as Librarian teacher. She is primarily a librarian, but is 
secondarily a teacher because of giving instruction in the use 
of books and libraries as a part of the required work of the 


Schools unable to provide a librarian may give some measure 
of service by the employment of a Teacher-librarian, i.e., a high 
school teacher, with at least six weeks' training in elementary 
library methods, one who gives part time to the library in addi- 
tion to teaching. 

This term was originally used in an effort to define a 
librarian as a person of educational qualifications and pro- 
fessional training. One who is primarily a teacher but with 
some library training and who looks after the library in 


addition to her regular business of teaching is characterized by 
this designation. 


The training for this work must be special and standardized. 
Desk work in a large library, or incidental work in a public li- 
brary does not fit one for the work. In such libraries, the work 
done by the untrained assistant gives her no training in classifica- 
tion and the records needed in even the smallest school library. 
The records used in public libraries are usually more elaborate 
and detailed than necessary in school libraries, where the system 
used must be very simple, but still accurate and adapted to the 
needs of the school. 

Standardization of Work 

Necessity for standardization of the library work in a state is 
another reason for special training for teacher-librarians. The 
training received in six weeks must of necessity be very rudi- 
mentary. To be useful it must be based on actual conditions and 
needs, and the teacher-librarian must be given specific directions 
to meet those conditions. 

In the school the portion of her time which may be given to 
the library is restricted, and all work done must be made to 
count toward getting the library on a working basis for the 
future as well as the present. The teachers change very fre- 
quently, and if the library service is to be consecutive and con- 
tinuous, it must be done by a system that is understandable to 
another having had similar training, and can be continued not 
done over. 


The teacher-librarian must be given time in which to do the 
library work, as well as her teaching. The amount of teaching 
which she may do must be restricted and she must not be re- 
quired to do outside work such as supervision of the assembly 
room, or coaching. 

In putting a library in order, speed is desirable, and for this 
reason a routine of work is suggested in the division of organ- 
ization that is the most economical of time. The work of each 


process must be done accurately and neatly, so that it will not 
need to be done over. 

The teacher-librarian taking up the work for the first time in 
connection with teaching in a school where the library has not 
been organized, cannot be expected to do more the first year than 
the processes preliminary to cataloging (see Routine, p. 21-74). 

The teacher-librarian is a make-shift at best. Schools will 
never secure the full measure of service until they employ a 
trained librarian with the requisite knowledge, training and un- 
divided time to give to the library. 

Part time service of a trained librarian may sometimes be 
secured through combining or contracting with the public library. 

Use of Student Help 

Students may not be entrusted with accessioning, cataloging 
or any parts of the work which require mature judgment and 
training. They are used to advantage in some schools in some 
of the mechanical processes, such as opening new books, stamp- 
ing, folding and pasting book pockets. Their work is carefully 
supervised and they are required to be very neat and accurate. 
Students capable of doing especially careful work may be taught 
to mend books, and boys who have had mechanical drawing may 
be trained to mark books acceptably. 

Students in the commercial department may be taught to 
make accurately spaced, typewritten shelf lists or catalog cards, 
from copy furnished by the librarian. 

Monitors for putting up books are of help after they have 
been taught the classification and arrangement of the books and 
the arrangement of magazines in the magazine rack. Charging 
books may also be done by the students, to leave the librarian 
free for personal work with the students. 

Bulletin boards may be partly or wholly in charge of the stu- 
dents, who will assemble, clip and post items of interest, and 
change them frequently. 


The library is not a study hall, but a place where books may 
be used with profit and enjoyment. As a matter of courteous 
consideration of the rights of all, order must be maintained. 
The librarian is needed to give assistance to the students and 
should be as free as possible from police duty. 


Self-government rules, made by the students and enforced by 
them, are effective in some libraries. The following are sugges- 


Adapted from the Rules of the Girls' High School, Brooklyn 

A library committee shall be elected by the students of the 

This committee shall consist of five members, two from the 
senior class, and one each from the junior, sophomore and fresh- 
man classes, each class electing its own member. 

It shall be the duty of the committee to give such service as 
may be requested by the teacher in charge of the library, and to 
see that the library rules are obeyed. 

Rules of the library shall be drawn which shall give the 
greatest use of the library for the whole student body, and shall 
be ratified by it. 


Resolved by the students of school that the 

following library rules shall be in force on and after 

1. The library is open to all students of the school for the 
drawing of books from to 

2. Use of the library during study periods 

Students wishing to spend a study period in the library shall 
report to the teacher and receive permission to do so. On en- 
tering the library at the beginning of a study period, or later, a 
student must register his name on the library bulletin board, 
giving name and room to which he belongs, or bring a pass slip 
from the teacher. 

Students must register for each period in the library. They 
may not leave before the end of the period. 

The library must not be used during study periods for text- 
book work excepting when the pupil wants to use library books 
during the greater part of the period. When most of the period 
is to be spent in text-book work, the pupil should remain in the 
study room until that is completed and then come to the library. 


(The latter arrangement is possible only when the library adjoins 
the study hall.) 

3. Order in the library 

The Librarian will make someone responsible for the order 
in the library during each period. At the close of the period, 
the person in charge will see that the tables arc cleared of 
books and papers. 

Each student using books or encyclopedias, or other large 
reference books, shall return them to the shelves. Other books 
will be returned unless a student is doubtful where they belong. 
When in doubt, leave the books on the table. 

No conversation shall be allowed in the library, and no con- 
duct not permissible in the classroom. 

4. Books for use outside the library 

No books, or other library property, may be taken from the 
room until properly charged. 

A book is not properly charged until the book card in the 
book pocket has been removed, borrower's name (and room) 
recorded on it, and a dating slip stamped to show when it must 
be returned. The book card must be put in the box kept for this 

Books in great demand may be loaned for one study period 
only, or from the close of school until 9 A. M. the next day. 

All other books are loaned for two weeks or for the time set 
by the teacher in charge of the library. All books must be re- 
turned on the date stamped on the date slip. 

5. Care of books 

Books must be used with care. 

They may not be left face down on the table or used to carry 
notes or memoranda, or otherwise misused. 

They must be kept dry and clean. 

No markings may be made in the books and no corners of 
pages turned down. 

Books lost or injured must be paid for. 

For violation of any of these rules, fines may be imposed or 
library privileges withdrawn. 

Other rules relating to borrowing of books are given on 
pages 68-73 under Charging system. 


Library Permits 

Many of the larger schools use more elaborate systems of 
library checking than that described above. Library permits are 
cumbersome, are time-consuming and not infrequently hamper 
the use of the library by the student. 

In introducing a checking system, study must be made of the 
needs it is to serve, that its purpose may be achieved with as 
little strain as possible upon teacher, librarian and student. 

From the school side, an attendance check is desired, so that 
the study hall teacher can account for students not in the study 
room at a specified time. 

The purpose of the library must be kept in mind. It is in the 
school to provide aid in reference work assigned by the teachers. 
This help cannot be furnished if the librarian's time is consumed 
with statistics of attendance. 

The student has ordinarily but one library period a day, and 
the number of subjects called for each period is often one-third 
as many as there are students in the library. The checking sys- 
tem must be reduced to the simplest form that the real work 
may not suffer. 

A simple but useful system is as follows: 

A slip for each hour is posted in the home room. Students 
going to the library write their names on this slip and on enter- 
ing the library, on a similar one posted there. 

At the end of the day, the slips from the library are re- 
turned to the home room teacher for comparison with the slip 

The chief objection to this system is that much of the 
student's time is used in waiting his turn to sign the slip. In 
the general economy, however, there is less loss than in employ- 
ing a method which takes time each period from the teacher or 

Where it is felt that a pass slip is especially desired, the fol- 
lowing may be used : 

The pass or library permit is issued by the class teacher. It 
bears the name of the student, his home or study room, the 
period (this information being filled in by the student himself), 
the reference assignment and the class teacher's signature. It is 
usually countersigned by the study room teacher for the hour in 


which it is used, but this is not considered essential. The per- 
mit is taken to the library by the student, and the librarian 
checks up the number of permits with the number of students in 
the room. At the end of the day all permits are sorted, and re- 
turned to the respective study rooms, to be compared with the 
list of students due there during the different periods. 

Supervised Study and the Library 

Use of books is essential in supervised study but removing 
large numbers from the library for use in any one study room 
for any considerable period works too great a hardship on the 
rest of the school. 

In some schools, books which are to be especially introduced 
during a class period are taken to the class room on the library 
truck and shown. At the end of the period, they are returned 
to the library and the students come there to use or draw them. 

In a school having hour periods, supervised study is carried 
on by having half hour recitation periods in the class room, fol- 
lowed by a class visit to the library, accompanied by the teacher, 
for a half hour's intensive reference work on the special subject. 

Following another method, a committee of students come 
to the library during a vacant period to look up material, and 
ask to have it held on reserve during a specified period. They 
then come for the books and return them at the end of the 
period or they come for fifteen minutes research during the 
period returning to the class to report on their findings. 


A class comes to the library for a whole period, accompanied 
by the Teacher, to examine all the material on a certain sub- 
ject. The librarian is notified in advance so that she has all the 
material collected, books, pictures, pamphlets, etc. and placed 
on tables put together. 

Use of the Library 

Use is the summing up and the test of the library's value to 
the school and the student. It is the end toward which all the 
work of selection, organization and administration is directed. 



Attractive books. 

Bulletin boards. 

Library well classified and arranged. 

Shelves well marked. 

Shelf list to show what books on each subject. 

Catalog to bring out all the material in the library. 

Librarian's personal work with the students: 

Helps in selection of books. 

Talks about the books. 

Interests those who do not read by studying their tastes 
and then bringing to their attention books on subjects 
in which they are interested. 
. Improves quality of reading done by suggestion of books 

better than those being read. 
Use of book lists: 

Brief lists on interesting subjects. 

Printed book marks. 

Library sermonettes, such as "Don't be a quitter." 

Library advertising. 

Book lists, book reviews, news items in school paper. 

Library exhibits as part of all school exhibits. 

Special exhibits as for Better Book week. Christmas gift 

Instruction in the use of books. 

Relation to Teachers 

Since the library serves the whole school, the librarian or the 
teacher-librarian must have the co-operation and support of all 
the teachers. Teachers as well as students must learn the clas- 
sification and arrangement of the library, and they must also 
comply with its rules. 

Special privileges are granted to teachers in number of books 
which may be drawn and time they may be kept, but they may 
not take any books from the library without having them 

When teachers are to send a number of students to the 
library to look up a subject, librarian or teacher-librarian must 
be notified in advance. 


When the public library loans groups of books to the 
school, they should be sent to the library rather than to in- 
dividual teachers. 


Reports are valuable to show the size and value of the library 
and to give some indication of its usefulness, even though it 
cannot be fully measured in this way. If records are kept ac- 
curately and continuously the most necessary figures may be 
easily compiled. 

The Accession book shows the number of books in the 
library and their cost, and number added during any year. 

By means of the Record of books loaned or Circulation sta- 
tistic forms described under Charging system, the number of 
books borrowed for home reading is easily counted. 

Closing the Library 

At the end of the school year, the library must be put in per- 
fect order before closing. All books belonging to the library 
must be gathered in from the various departments and in- 
dividuals and missing books traced. All cards must be taken 
from the charging tray, put in the books and the books replaced 
in their proper number on the shelves. 

If any work, such as the cataloging, must be left unfinished, 
a note must be left with it showing clearly the stage it is in. 

Complete inventory should be taken occasionally, particularly 
when there is to be a change of Librarian. 

This is done by checking the books on the shelves with the 
shelf list. Note is made of books missing, and search made for 
these in the charging tray, and in the accession book which 
should show if the book has been withdrawn. 

The work of inventory is not complete until all the books 
listed on the shelf list and in the accession book are accounted 
for, and a report drawn up and filed. 

If the books are not found within six months, annotation is 
made in Remarks column in the accession book and opposite 
each number on the shelf card and a nnal report made up. 

This work may well be done at examination time in the 
school when use of the library is lessened. 


Keeping the Library Open 

When a teacher-librarian is employed and the library service 
thus limited, other teachers may be assigned to the library for 
their vacant periods that it need not be closed. These library 
periods give the teacher opportunity to supervise special refer- 
ence work for her own classes. 

Distribution to Grades 

In small schools books for the grades are housed in the gen- 
eral library, but on special shelves. Library days are assigned to 
each grade to permit them to come to the library to select their 

When such arrangement is not feasible, a classroom collec- 
tion is sent to each room for a limited time and the teacher at- 
tends to the charging of the books to the pupils. When the col- 
lection is returned, the teacher makes a report on the circulation 
of the books. 

Club Work 

Interest in the library may be greatly stimulated by the forma- 
tion of clubs of boys and girls who are interested in the same 
subjects. One teacher aroused enthusiasm for research by asking 
the members of one class to bring topics in which they were espe- 
cially interested. The class was divided into groups, each group 
investigating one subject and making final report to the whole 
class. The teacher provided sources of information and directed 
the work of the groups. An interesting result was that the school 
found it must have a modern, well-organized library. 

Parent-Teacher Association 

A library committee in the Parent-Teachers association is an- 
other means of getting increased interest in the library. Such 
committees have been of help in providing better reading for the 
children in the town, getting books on special interests, providing 
volunteer service for keeping the library open in the evening 
for public use and in creating sentiment for a public library in 
the town. 


Teachers' Reading Clubs 

Many high schools are in towns where there is no good public 
library and the teachers find themselves without the facilities to 
carry on reading in the subjects in which their interests were 
awakened in college or to keep in touch with topics of the day. 

While the school library is primarily for the students of the 
school, it may be of real use to the whole teaching staff through 
encouraging the formation of teachers' reading clubs and pro- 
viding books for their use. From the United States Bureau of 
education at Washington, D.C., a number of courses for such 
clubs may be obtained. Other clubs take up the works of some 
of the best modern novelists, several books by one writer or one 
or more modern plays. 

The magazines in the school library supply material for cur 
rent topics. 

Instruction in the Use of Books and Libraries 

Instruction is a most important feature in the modern school 

It should begin in the grade school and progress with the 
school work through the high school. 

Courses in the use of books and libraries should also be 3 
part of the training of all types of teachers, rural, elementary and 
high school, that they may make the library effective in their 

Teaching the Use of Books and Libraries 
( i ) REASONS 

a. To give definite help and interest to daily school work. 

b. For boys and girls going to college. Make work 
easier and give facility in using the library. 

c. For boys and girls leaving school. Give resourceful- 
ness in finding out things for themselves ; use of public 
libraries; how to obtain books; evaluation of books. 

d. Pleasure of using a book intelligently. Value in club 
work; in civic work. 



e. Time saving for the librarian or teacher-librarian to 
give definite instruction to groups rather than re- 
peatedly to individuals. 


How to open a new book. 

Care of books: Maxson book mark, etc. 

How to use a dictionary. 

Table of contents. 

Index in a book. 

Parts of a book. 

Arrangement of books in the school library. 


The amount of time spent in instruction to students in 
the use of the library in any high school will depend 
upon how much the library can be used (adequacy 
of the book collection, organization and arrange- 
ment, records, such as catalog, etc.) ; upon how well 
the librarian's training fits her to give such instruc- 
tion ; the amount of time she can devote to it, and 
upon the co-operation and interest of the principal 
and other members of the faculty. 

An elaborate course may be given or it may be re- 
duced to a few lessons. The work is greatly needed 
and a little is better than nothing. 

Whatever instruction is given should be interesting, 
definite, concrete and accompanied by practical 
demonstrations. It should be followed up by prob- 
lems to be worked out individually and it should be 
carried over into every day handling of books and 
use of the library. 

It should be required of all students, and should be 
credited as part of their regular work. It should be 
given as early in the course as possible, and prefer- 
ably to each class separately, as it is easier to work 
with small groups. 

The lessons should be progressive. The sequence fol- 
lowing is one commonly approved. 



1. Value and use of a library 

Public library 

How many have cards? 
High school library 

Use for reference 

Returning books to shelves 
Social attitude toward use 
Library manners 
Arrangement of the library 
The card catalog 

2. The book 


How to use 

Study of the printed parts 

Title page 


Table of contents 

List of illustrations and maps 


How to judge a book 




3. Reference books 


What it contains 
How to use it 



4. Encyclopedia 

What information given 


How and when to use 

5. Other reference aids 

Books in the library 
Card catalog as reference aid 
Material on subjects of current interest 
Pamphlets and government bulletins 

Readers' guide to periodical literature 
Debating aids may be given here if desired 
Debate material 
How to collect 
How to use 
Note-taking for debate 
Bibliographies ; use and making 

0. Atlases. Year books. Handbooks. Reference books for 
special subjects. 

7. Books and reading 

Why read? 

Reading for information 

Joy of reading 

Owning books 

Collecting and purchase of books 

8. The library and the community 

The public library 
School service 
Town service 
Country service 
State library resources 
State documents 
The university library 
The library commission 
Methods of instruction. 
By whom given. 

Grade instruction mostly by teacher. High school 
instruction in use of books may be given by teacher. 


Any instruction concerning the library by the li- 
brarian or the teacher-librarian. 

The part taught by. English or history teacher may 
be given in the classroom. Librarian or teacher- 
librarian should give all the work concerning the 
library in the library room. 
Order of instruction. 

It is obvious that instruction cannot be given on 
any reference books not in the library or on 
classification or cataloging until the library is put 
in order. 

Books useful in teaching the use of the library: 

Baldwin. Writing and speaking. Longmans. 

Fay & Eaton. Use of books and libraries. 
Boston bk. 

Hopkins. Reference guides. Willard co. 

McKnight & Dana. High school branch. 
Wilson co. 

Rice. Lessons on the use of the library. Wis- 
consin Dept. of education (Madison). 

Slater. Freshman rhetoric. Heath. 

Ward. Practical use of books and libraries. 
F. W. Faxon co., Boston. 

Ward. Suggestive outline for teaching the use. 
F. W. Faxon co., Boston. 

Printed notes on the library to be filed in students' note 
books are useful in connection with instruction. 


A Course Prepared by the High School Librarians of Cleveland 


The work is planned as an integral part of the school in 
strnction from the 7th to I2th grades, for students in all 



1. Round out the educational process by providing stimulus 
to reading and instruction in using books most profitably. 

2. Give help and interest to school projects in all subjects. 

3. Develop and encourage interests not covered by the cur- 
riculum. Assist in acceleration work of the school. 

4. Prepare boys and girls who are going to college to take 
up advanced reference work with ease. 

5. Provide boys and girls leaving school with a means of 
carrying on education through knowledge of how to use a 
library effectively. 

6. Train in reading habit for information and entertainment 


Awakening of civic responsibility in use of school property 
(care and proper use of library books). 

Time saving for teachers and librarians to give definite in- 
struction to groups rather than repeatedly to individuals. 

Instruction in the Junior and Senior High Schools 


The amount of instruction given will depend on the time 
allowed for this work by the English classes and the adequacy 
of the library staff. 

The subject matter presented will be influenced by the train- 
ing in the use of books and libraries which the pupils have had 

In the period between the seventh and twelfth years in 
school, the pupils should receive instruction in Use of the pub- 
lic library; Use of the school library; its arrangement, resources 
and regulations; Aids to self help in a library; The pupils' 
responsibility toward the library; The care, handling and re- 
turn of books ; and they should make definite directed study 
of the common library tools, such as indexes in books; the 
dictionary ; the encyclopedia ; the most used handbooks and 
typical general reference books; the card catalog; the library 
classification of books; the Readers' guide to periodical litera- 
ture ; pamphlet and bulletin material. They should be taught 
how to look up a subject in a library; how to take notes 


on material found; how to arrange references and how to 
compile a simple bibliography. 

The work, particularly in the advanced years should be 
closely correlated with the subject matter of the English course. 

On the book side, the library instruction should foster a 
taste for books having some literary merit, should awaken in- 
terest in a variety of subjects, and should stimulate the owning 
of books, the building up of the home book shelf, and the 
use of public libraries in after-school days. 


The instruction relating to books (physical make-up and 
also joys of reading) might well be given by the teacher, but 
the work on the library should be given by the librarian. 

Whatever instruction is given should be interesting, definite, 
concrete and accompanied by practical demonstrations. It 
should be followed up by problems to be worked out individually 
and it should be carried over into the everyday handling of 
books and the use of the library. 

The N. E. A. standard "A" gives as a minimum three recita- 
tion periods per year in each English course. 

The outline for instruction can be only suggestive, for the 
reasons indicated. The librarian will adapt the topics to the 
age and knowledge of the pupils taught and condense or 
elaborate as the time permits. 

The accompanying "Helps in the use of a library" is de- 
signed for pupils' study and for filing in their note books. 
These should be provided in separate form for this purpose. 

Instruction Seventh Grade 
(Instruction given in the library, by the Librarian) 


The modern library 

Public library. See "Helps" par. 1-4 
What it is and does. Why "public?" 
How many have used a library? Have card? 
Library regulations. Why necessary? 
Behavior in the library. 


School library. See "Helps" par. 5-6 
Relation to public library 
Reasons for rules 
Drawing and return of books 
How to find books 
Behavior in the library. See par. 7 
(Instruction to be given by teacher if desired) 


Review of information gained in lower grades 

Care and handling of books (with explanation of how books 

are made, increased cost of books, books for everybody, civic 

responsibility, etc.) 


(When this instruction is given, each pupil should have at 
hand a book with a good index, in which to note each point 
as it is discussed, also use "Helps" par. 10-12; and follow by: 
Drill on the index 

Compare use of index and table of contents 

Look up 
Cross references 
Phrases under word 
Inclusive pages 

Verify reference in book itself 
Work out problem involving choice of word 

DICTIONARY. See "Helps" par. 14-15 

Use also publishers Dictionary leaflet "Introducing your dic- 
tionary to you." 

BOOK TALK, discussing books on the Home reading list for this 
grade, with emphasis upon stories of individual success 
and courage. Teacher or librarian will tell an incident from 
one of the books, or read a portion to stimulate the in- 

LIBRARY HOUR, conducted co-operatively by the teacher and 
librarian, in the library. The teacher will notify the 


librarian in advance that she will bring her class to the li- 
brary for a specified period for the study of material 
on a certain subject. The librarian will collect all available 
material on the subject; books, pamphlets, magazines and 
pictures. The teacher will come with the class for in- 
tensive reference work during the period. The most satis- 
factory work is done when each pupil is assigned a definite 
phase of the subject to study and report upon. 
A variation of the above plan is used in a school having 
supervised study; several pupils are sent to the library to look 
up a subject briefly, and in fifteen minutes or so, return to 
class to report upon their findings, or a similar committee 
spends a period in the library early in the day looking over 
material, and has it put on reserve for their class for a period 
later in the day, when it is taken to the class room for one 

Instruction Eighth Grade 

Review of seventh grade work 

Review of parts of the books 
Dictionary work continued 

Encyclopedic features, see "Helps" par. 14 
Encyclopedia, see "Helps" par. 16-17 

How to look up a subject 

Use of material found 

Book talks on books about great men, great industries, 
great enterprises. 

References for Instruction in Seventh and Eighth Grades 

Barrette Use of the library as an aid in school work. 

School and society, March 16, 1918. 

(Value of the library hour) 

Bolenius Everyday English composition. 

Gildemeister Minnesota course of study for elementary 


(Dictionary work, p. 98; literature, p. 200) 

(Kroeger, (Publisher) Winona, Minn.) 


Portland, Oregon Elementary course of study (Outline of li- 

( Public schools) brary instruction) 

Rice Lessons in the use of the library 

Wisconsin State dept. of education 

Instruction Ninth Grade 

Review of eighth year work on encyclopedia 
Handbooks and typical general reference books, see also 
"Helps" par. 23 
Who's who in America 
World almanac 

Freeman & Chandler World's commercial products 

Rand, McNally Imperial atlas 

Garnett & Gosse English literature 


Use of catalog, see "Helps" par. 9 

Classification, see "Helps" par. 8 

Public library classification (study of detailed outline) 

Problem developed individually or by .group, see par. 24 

Instruction Tenth Grade 

Reader's guide to periodical literature, see "Helps" par. 21-22 

Review use of catalog 

Review subject assignment by use of individual problem. 


Book talk on use of good reading to increase vocabulary 
(Readings from Muir Story of my boyhood and youth; 
Choate, Rufus Life; or any others) 
Study of a few typical magazines 

Current events (weekly) Literary digest 

(monthly) Review of reviews 
Literary Atlantic 

General (weekly) Outlook or Independent 

(monthly) World's work, Scribner's or 

Instruction Eleventh Year 


Review of tenth year work 

Study of special reference books of immediate use, see 

"Helps" par. 23 
Special instruction for this grade 

Note taking in the library 

Bibliography making 

Debating reference 


Special study of books and material on vocations following 
outline of vocational courses 

Instruction Twelfth Year 

Review of eleventh year work 

Talk on the public library as a continuation school 

Each student to make a visit to the public library to in- 
vestigate a vocation or subject of special interest 

Talk on the home library on owning books, buying books, 

References for High School Library Instruction 

Baldwin Writing and speaking (chapter on Bring- 

ing the library to bear) Longmans 

Bostwick Making of an American's library 

Fay & Eaton Use of books and libraries. Faxon Co., 


Lomer & Ashmun Teaching of English (making a bibliog- 
raphy, p. 221-3 and other references) 

Ward Practical use of books and libraries. Fax- 

on co., Boston 

Ward Suggestive outlines for teaching the use of 

books. Faxon co., Boston 

Wisconsin Library lessons for high schools: by O. S. 

Rice, state dept. of education, Madison, 



Notes to be printed on note book size sheets. Sets of the sheets 

should be given to each person receiving instructions and 

filed in note book for use and reference 


To show what a, library is and how it may be used. 

To help in the use of a library, whether the public library 

or the school library. 


What it is: 

A collection of the best books for reading and reference 
use; magazines, pamphlets and pictures. 

3. What it does: 

It gives every one a chance to find out anything he 
wishes to know, and to study any subject in which 
he is interested. 

How to use it: 

Visit the library nearest your home. 
Ask the librarian to tell you how to take out a card. 
Acquire library manners; walk quietly and speak in a 
low tone. 

What it is : 

Special collection of books, magazines and indexes, 
pamphlets, clippings, pictures and maps kept in the 
school for convenience of pupils and teachers. 

5. What it does: 

For information and study, supplies material for use 
in connection with all subjects taught in the school. 
For pleasure reading and outside interests, provides 
books for home reading; how to make and do things; 
club work; sports and amusements. 


6. How to use it: 

The library room is not a study hall, but quiet and 

order must be maintained. 

Show consideration of others by careful handling of 

books and replacing of reserve books and volumes in 


7. The librarian's part is to know the books and to direct 

in their use. Help her by good conduct in the library 
and by learning how to use the library yourself. 
Always feel free to ask the librarian for help. 


8. Classification. 

Books on the same subject are grouped together on 
the shelves. This arrangement is called classification. 
Library classification is based on a decimal system, with 
figures for notation. The same system is used in many 
public libraries and school libraries. The great sub- 
divisions are divided by tens. 

Outline of classification, 
ooo Reference books 
200 Religion 
300 Sociology 
500 Natural science 
600 Useful arts 
700 Fine arts 
cSoo Literature 
910-919 Geography and travel 

920 Collective biography 

921 Individual biography arranged by name of person 
written about. 

930-990 History 

The books are marked with a call number. This is 
a symbol representing the subject of the book and its 
location on the shelves. 

For fuller classification scheme see Dewey Abridged Classi- 



The catalog is a list of the books which the library owns. 
It bears the same relationship to the library that an index 
does to a book. 
It answers the questions: 

What books by a certain author are in the library? 
Has the library a book of a certain title? 
What material is there in the library on any subject? 

The information is on cards, arranged by author, title and 

subject in one alphabet. 

Each card also has the call number in the upper left corner. 

How to use it: 

To find out whether the library has a particular book, 

look for the name of the author or title. 

To find out what material is in the library on a subject 

look for the name of the subject in red. 

Observe the call number on the card. This directs to 

the location of the book on the shelves. 

Reference cards are also found which direct from other 

possible forms of a name or subject to the form used 

in the catalog; and from subjects to related subjects 

under which books are also listed. These are called 

Cross references. 

Summary of classification in the library, showing the sec- 
tions most used. 


What it is: 

The book is a means of increasing one's store of knowl- 
edge, of acquiring new ideas and vocabulary, of learning 
about life and people in all places and times. 

11. How to use it: 

Some books are to be read through carefully, to study the 
author's style, to master the new words and ideas. Others 
are to be skimmed, to get at the information quickly. 
Information to be gained from the different parts: 

Title Page gives title, author, publisher and usually 
date of publication and copyright date. 


(Copyright is the exclusive right secured to an 
author or artist, by law, to publish or dispose of a 
work for a limited time.) 

Preface gives author's purpose in writing the book. 

Table of Contents Is a list of chapter headings and 
outlines the subject matter in the order in which it is 

List of Illustrations or Maps. 
Text or body of book. 
How to judge a book. 

Is it written in good English? 

Is the subject or idea presented truthfully? 

Is it readable? Interesting? 

Is there sufficient information or pleasure in 

the book to make it worth while? 

Does your opinion of the book agree with that 

of more experienced critics? 

Bibliography gives list of books for further reading, 

Appendix gives fuller notes and added information. 

Index is usually in the back of a book and in the last 

volume of a set. 

It lists alphabetically all the material in a book and 

the page on which it is found. 

Its use is the most direct method of rinding material. 



A reference book is one to be consulted for definite points of 
information rather than to be read through, and is arranged 
with regard to ease in finding specific facts. 
Arrangement is usually alphabetical or with an index. 
Those which treat of many subjects are called general refer- 
ence books, e.g. dictionaries and encyclopedias. 
If the full meaning of a term is not understood, the first 
book to consult in the search for information is the dictionary. 



14. What it is: 

A book dealing primarily with words and giving alpha- 
betically, a list of the words in a language. 
Information given for a word: Spelling; pronuncia- 
tion, parts of speech ; derivation ; definition ; quotations 
and synonyms. The modern unabridged dictionary 
includes in addition to ordinary words and phrases; 
proper names, including mythology, abbreviations, 
words and phrases in foreign languages, dialect, 
slang, technical terms, obsolete words; illustrations, 
and brief information about subjects. 

15. How to use it : 

Look for thumb index and for the guide word at top 
of the page. The key to the abbreviations used in 
the descriptions of the words, is found in the intro- 

For a brief account of a person or subject, the quickest help 

is often found in the encyclopedia. 


16. What it is: 

A reference work dealing with subjects rather than 
words as the dictionary does. 

The best encyclopedias are of recent date, are in many 
volumes and include articles on a great variety of 

Special features are reading lists at the end of the 
articles, fine illustrations, maps and diagrams. The 
arrangement is alphabetical or an index volume is pro- 

17. How to use it: 

Look first for the letter on the back of the volume, 
then the guide word at the top of the page. 
Note the arrangement of words on the page. 
Subjects have headings and sometimes sub-heads. 
The spelling of words must be kept in mind. 
Follow up cross references. 

Use the index volume if the subject wanted is not 
found in its alphabetical place. 



18. Any book may be used as a reference book. 

For subjects on which a whole book has been written, the 
book is a better source of information than the encyclopedia 
article. It usually covers the subject more fully; gives more 
recent information, is apt to be more authoritative, and often 
has better illustrations. 

19. The Card Catalog is a reference help because it shows on 
what subjects the library has material whether it is a whole 
book or a part of a book. The date on the card shows how 
recent the material is. 


Pamphlets, circulars .and government bulletins provide in- 
formation on timely subjects. 

These are arranged in pamphlet holders, by subject. 

21. Magazines. 

These contain recent information and the Readers' guide 
shows where the articles are found. 

Readers' guide to periodical literature is a monthly, quarterly 

and yearly index to the best magazines. 

It lists articles alphabetically by author, title and subject. 
Includes references to portraits and poems. 
References give in abbreviated form the title of the ar- 
ticle, the name of the author, the volume, paging, date. 
A complete list of the magazines indexed is given in the 
front of the Guide. 

22. How to use it: 

Look for the name of the subject wanted as in the 
index of a book. 

Begin at the latest number or volume and work back. 
Make a note of a reference by taking down the name 
of the magazine, the volume number, the paging and 
the date. 

The general reference books are first aid in the search for in- 
formation. For every subject there are special reference books 
which may be consulted for fuller information. 





Century dictionary. 

Funk & Wagnall's New Standard dictionary. 


Encyclopedia Britannica. 
,New International Encyclopedia. 
New Americana Encyclopedia. 


Statistics and social questions. 

Bliss & Binder. New encyclopedia of social reform. 

Statesman's year book. 

Walsh. Curiosities of popular custom. 

World almanac. 

Useful arts. 

Bailey. Cyclopedia of American agriculture. 
Bailey. Cyclopedia of American horticulture. 
Freeman & Chandler. World's commercial products. 

Fine arts. 

Grove. Dictionary of music. 

Reinach. Apollo. 

Sturgis. Dictionary of architecture. 


Bartlett. Familiar quotations. 

Brewer. Dictionary of phrase and fable. 

Brewer. Readers' handbook. 

Chambers. Cyclopedia of American literature. 

Firkins. Index to short stories. 

Garnett & Gosse. English literature. 

Granger. Index to poetry. 

Hoyt. Cyclopedia of practical quotations. 

Moulton. Library of literary criticism. 

Stedman & Hutchinson. Library of American literature. 

Stevenson. Home book of verse. 

Warner. Library of the world's best literature. 



Foster. Debating for boys. 
Phelps. Debaters' manual. 
Robbins. High school debate book. 
Roberts. Rules of order. 
Thomas. Manual of debate. 


Bartholomew. Atlas of economic geography. 

Doubleday & Page. Geographical manual and new atlas. 

Lippincott's new gazetteer. 

Rand & McNally. Imperial atlas. 

Robertson & Bartholomew. Historical atlas of modern 



Appleton's cyclopedia of American biography. 

Century cyclopedia of names. 

Dictionary of national biography; index and epitome. 

Lippincott's universal pronouncing dictionary of biography 

and mythology. 

U.S. Official congressional directory. 

Who's who. 

Who's who in America. 


Hadyn. Dictionary of dates. 

Harper's dictionary of classical literature. 

Heilprin. Historical reference book. 

Hodge. Handbook of American Indians. 

Lamed. History for ready reference. 

Low & Pulling. Dictionary of English history. 

Shepherd. Historical atlas. 

Problem Each student to be assigned an individual prob- 
lem involving use of the dictionary, the encyclopedia, card 
catalog and magazine index. 

School Library Measurements 

The score card is the modern and convenient way of check- 
ing up with the standard. 

Mr. Leon Smith of the Omaha Board of education has 



prepared a score for High schools. The following was arranged 
by the High school librarians of Cleveland (1920) and is in- 
cluded as suggestive. 

High School Library Equipment and Organization 


Location of room : p.7 

Central location on the 
second floor is usually found 
most satisfactory. 

Size: p. 7 

To accomodate at one full 
period from 5-10% of the total 
daily attendance of the school. 
An area of at least 25 square 
feet per reader is required. 
Minimum for the small high 
school should be that of an 
average classroom 

Additional rooms: p. 9. 

Library classroom should 
adjoin; 30-60 chairs, small 
stage, complete lantern outfit, 
etc. Work room of at least 
10x15 feet adjoining, with 
shelving, typewriter, etc. 

Equipment: p. 8 

Lighting; indirect or semi- 
direct. Decoration: white ceil- 
ings and light buff walls. 
Floor covering: linoleum or 
cork carpet to deaden sound. 

Furniture : p. 8-9 

Open, wall shelving, not 
over 7 feet, shelves 3 feet long. 
Enough to accommodate pres- 
ent collection and allow for 
growth. Tables 3x5, seating 
6. Comfortable chairs, charg- 
ing desk for reference work, 


Location of Library room 
Convenience of access 

Seating capacity 

Book capacity. See shelving, 
Book collection. 

Additional rooms 

Floor covering 


Charging desk 
Additional desk 



card-catalog case, pamphlet 
cases, magazine stand, news- 
paper rack, vertical file, book 
truck. Accession books, Li- 
brary of Congress catalog 
cards, desk and catalog . . . 
supplies, stamps, book sup- 
ports, shelf-markers, type- 
writer, bulletin boards. 

Book collection p. 24 

Ten volumes to every stu- 
dent in the school. Every 
book a useful book and one 
for constant use, p. 13-14 

Librarian p. 10-12 

Assistants: full time trained 
assistant for every 1000 
students in attendance. 

Status : librarian, head of 
library department ; attend 
teachers meetings relating to 
courses and policy governing 
instruction. Administrative 

work; directing the library, 
selecting books, planning room 
and equipment, budget, etc., 
directing assistants and build- 
ing up collections of pamph- 
lets, clippings and illustrative 
material. Technical work ; 
making all material readily 
available, charging all ma- 
terial loaned, keeping neces- 
sary records including use of 
the library. 

Catalog case 
Vertical file 
Magazine rack 
Atlas case 
Exhibit case 
Bulletin boards 
Book truck 

Book collection 

Size in relation to enroll- 

Suitability to ages and 

Supplied by Board of 

Supplied by Public Libra- 

Books borrowed last year 




Administrative work 

Technical work 



Educational work ; ref- 
erence, helping teachers and 
students to find suitable 
material, prepare lists, etc. In- 
struction : systematic instruc- 
tion in use of reference books 
and library tools. Educational 
and vocational guidance: read- 
ing lists and personal guidance. 

Instruction in the use, p. 14 

Minimum of three recitation 
periods per year in each Eng- 
lish course. Use of the library 
for educational guidance. Use 
of books as tools. For recrea- 
tion. Books as public property. 
Relation of high school and 
public library. 

Relation to school 
Appropriation, p. 15-16 
Librarians salaries 
New books SOG per student 
Magazines : Not less than $40 
Binding: $4O-$75 

New equipment 
Funds apportioned by li- 

Educational work 

Relation to the public li- 


Instruction in the use 

Length of course 

Classes receiving instruc- 

Number of lessons given 
by teachers 

Number given by librar- 

Relation to school 



Student government 
Library permits 

Uses interfering with the 


Study hall 

Student conferences 

Exhibits (unrelated) 

Disciplinary uses 


Library hours 



NOTE. The page numbers refer to the Certain Report on library or- 
ganization and equipment. 


Instructions for Rural Teachers 

The rural school library is an important link in the library 
chain. Many states give library aid to rural schools and it is 
possible to have good books. 

The rural teacher should be prepared for this as for any 
part of her work. 

The teachers' training departments in the high schools pre- 
pare teachers for the rural schools. One of the first things a 
rural teacher has to do is to select a school library. She 
often has little knowledge of children's books and little idea of 
what the school library may be in the school. 

The training school should include in its work some dis- 
cussion of the rural school library, its purpose and use, afford 
an opportunity for acquaintance with the best children's books 
which are suited to the needs of the rural school, and give the 
cadets a knowledge of the state school list, from which they 
must select their books, so that they may use it to advantage. In 
a state not having an authorized school list, the training school 
should have reference copies of standard lists. 

The following notes are designed to help the teacher of the 
training class to give such instruction. 

It is recommended that each student teacher be required to 
read at least fifteen children's books and examine many others. 
The teacher should assign the books to be read so that the books 
will be selected from the different classes. 

Every training department should have in the classroom, 
where there is not a well organized school library, its own li- 
brary of books helpful to the training department and the 
rural teacher. 

The training department should also own or have access to 
at least one hundred books suitable for a rural school library. 

The Rural School Library 

Every teacher needs 

(i) Knowledge and appreciation of books for help in her 
school work and intimate acquaintance with the best children's 


(2) A clear idea of the purpose and possibilities of a school 

(3) Knowledge of school library aids that are obtainable. 

(4) To know how to select a useful school library. 

(5) To know how to order books. 

(6) To know how to care for and use a school library. 

1. Knowledge of books 

The necessity for acquaintance with books needs no argu- 
ment. Without them no teacher can perform her task of open- 
ing the field of knowledge to boys and girls or give them full 
training for successful living. Unless she knows children's 
books herself, she cannot make them a power in her school. 
The only way to know books is to read them, read good books, 
and cultivate a taste for them. There are some books about 
books, which are suggestive. Every teacher should read all 
or parts of the following books : 

Adler. Moral instruction of children. 

Colby. Literature and life in school. 

Lowe. Literature for children. 

McClintock. Literature in the elementary school. 

Olcott. Children's reading. 

2. Purpose of school library 

Supplement class work and make lessons more interesting. 
Furnish books for home reading for information and enter- 
Encourage the reading of good books. 

3. What the state does for school libraries 

Make a study of state law regarding school libraries, pro- 
vision for books, assistance in organization of school libraries, 
instruction in library matters. 

4. Book selection for school libraries 


If the State department of education has no school list one 
or more of the following should be provided in quantities for 
class use. Students should buy a copy for personal checking. 


Minnesota Dept. of education. (St Paul). Library books 
for elementary and rural schools. 

Oregon State library (Salem) pt. I Books for elementary 
schools pt. 2 Books for high schools. 25c. 

Wisconsin Dept. of educ. (Madison). Books for township 
libraries. Books for high schools. 

Wisconsin Library commission. Children's books for . first 
purchase. Netherwood co., Madison, Wis. 35c. 

U. S. Bureau of education. Bulletin 1917, no. 41. Library 
books for high schools. 2oc. 

H. W. Wilson co. (958 Univ. ave. New York). Children's 
Catalog (1917). $6. 


Points to be noted: 
Purpose of the list 
What classes included? New books or standards. 


By classes of books 
By grades 




Publisher, date, series, price, class no, grade. 

Are best books indicated? 

Editions fine or best cheap 

Annotations descriptive or critical 






Special lists, poems to be memorized. Suggestions on the care 
of the library. 



Check the index for every book in the library, by author and 
title; also check the entry under subject. Mark each book 
with the number of the division where it is listed. Arrange 
the books on the shelves, placing all of one number together, 
alphabetically by author's name. 

Book Selection for School Libraries. See also page 15. 

Read the annotations under the title before ordering and note 
the grade for which it is intended. 

Do not buy all stories, but get interesting books on all sub- 
jects. Get books of practical information how to make 
and do things. In selecting titles, read the annotations 
which tell something of the book. 

Observe grade for which it is intended and buy for ages 

represented in the country school. 
Ordering books. Read Notes on Ordering, page 22. 

Organization and records for country schools 

See Routine in putting the library in order and description 

of processes which follows. Pages 26-78 
Note that for rural schools processes 16, 17 would be 

Uses for discarded books 
See page 32. 

Use of the school library 

The teacher must know the books in her library thoroughly 
in order to use them successfully, it is "the book that 
teacher says is good" that the child wants to read. 

Adapted from Oregon State library School circular No. 2 

What you may do to make it of service 

1. Know your books. 

2. Look them over for something: 

a. To read aloud. 

b. To interest the child who does not read. 


c. To help the one who has a decided interest 

d. To make the lessons more interesting. 

e. To suggest ethical stories which will help to correct 


3. Read aloud from some of the best books. 

4. Find out what each boy and girl cares most about and use 

curiosity or interest which has been aroused. Cultivate 
any decided aptitude, and awaken new interests. 

5. Encourage home reading. 

6. Substitute a good book for the fair or poor one which is 

undermining the character of the child. 

7. Read a "starter" from a big book, or from a neglected one 

which is really worth while. 

8. Allow individual reading in the schoolroom when the lesson 

is learned, and do not make this a reward of merit. 

9. Use the library to enliven the language lesson by Friday 

afternoon "book talks," avoiding formal reports. 

10. Use the library books to supplement the text-books. Assign 

readings and allow class time for reports on outside read- 

11. Ask questions to start search for information. (For in- 

stance Did the cavemen have cloth?) 

12. Choose a hero for each month and read about him, talk 

about him, learn about his life and times. (Arthur, Sieg- 
fried, Richard I, Charlemagne, Franklin, Paul Jones.) 

13. Discuss interesting people in books. A debate on the com- 

parative merits of certain boy-heroes in books may result 
in more discriminating selection of ideals. 

14. Read short stories to correct faults (and do not point the 


15. Teach the use of table of contents and index. Let the chil- 

dren see who can find most about some subject in a given 
time in some certain book or books. 


16. Plan an annual "library day" with program from one author, 

talks about the books, readings, a debate. 

17. Plan for systematic reading of best literature through the 

grades in preparation for literature in the high school. 
Foundation work is essential in this subject as in others. 

18. See that the library does three things for your school : 

1. Makes the lessons more interesting. 

2. Provides training in the use of books. 

3. Cultivates the reading habit. 

Story telling is one of the best means of interesting children 
in reading. Use the story telling to direct to books, telling the 
story from a book not read as it should be. Have the book at 
hand to show when telling the story. Examine the books listed 
under Story telling and Children's literature, many of them in- 
clude lists of stories to tell. 

A useful pamphlet on story telling is: Power. List of 
stories and programs for story hours. Obtain of H. W. Wilson 
co., 958-64 University ave., New York, N.Y. 2oc. 

Pupils' reading circle 

The reading circle is a good means of directing reading and 
of arousing interest in books. It is desirable -that the children 
should own the books they read, thus beginning a library of 
their own. Parents might be willing to get them for birthday 
and Christmas presents, or the children save their own money 
to buy them. 

The reading may be connected with the language work. In- 
formal reports on the books read, are usually more satisfactory. 
The children should be encouraged to tell what they liked best 
in the book, which character they preferred and whether the 
book was like any other they had read. The teacher should de- 
cide the number of books to be read in a year. 

Certificates may be given for the reading done. 

Lessons in the use of the library for rural schools. 

These may be given in the period for opening exercises and 
should be given early in the year. 
Suggested topics: 


Structure and care of a book. 

How a book is made. 

How to open a book. See page 35. 

How to handle a new book. 

The Maxson book mark. 
Printed parts of a book and their uses. 

Title page 


Table of contents 



Classification of the school library. 

How to find books on different subjects. 
(Get the dictionary leaflets.) 
How to use the dictionary. 


Accession book 27, 58-61, 78 

Accessioning 26, 59 

Administration 105 

Agricultural classification, 

46, 47, 48, Si-5 

Analytic entries 91 

Appropriation . 106 

Arrangement of books 66-7 

Arrangement of cards 94-9 

Author card 83 

Author card samples 92-3 

Bills ; 42 

Binding 33-37, 72 

Biography cards 57, 77 

Book buying 19, 22-4 

Book capacity 8 

Book card 26, 28, 61 

Book charging system 69 

Book lists 17-18 

Book numbers 57 

Book pocket 27, 29, 43 

Book selection 14-22 

Book supports 35, 42, 67-8 

Books per pupil 7, 139 

Booklet material 33, 102-3 

Borrower's cards 74 

Bulletins 51, 99 

Business entry 42, 64 

Call number 57, 64, 65, 77, 131 

Card catalog cases u, 29, 91-2 

Card charging system. .. .29, 69, 72 

Catalog .. 78-81, 132 

Catalog cards samples 92-4 

Cataloging 81-103 

Chairs 9 . 10 

Charging system 29, 68-73 

Checking the school list 68, 144 

City, systems 105 

Classroom collections 72 

Classification 44-58, 101 

Clippings I02 

Cleaning books 39 

Closing the library 117 

Club work ! !n8 

ate sjiP 



28, 69, 71 


...... 1 1 1 

Editions ............ I7 . ig - 4 8 , 

Elementary school library. .. .144-6 

Filing catalog cards 91-2 

Filing cases 12, 29, 100 

Filing charging cards 75 

Filing pamphlets 100 

Furniture 9-12, 29 

Government documents 31, 85 

Grade books 15-16 

Heat 14 

Indexer cards 80 

Instruction in books and libraries, 

119, 123-9 

Junior high school 103, 109 

L.C. cards 80 

Labels 42 , 65 

Librarian 107, 109 

Librarian-teacher 109 

Library binding 19, 34 

Library hand 66, 94 

Library hour 115, 126-7 

Library lists 17-19, 142-3 

Library room 5-13 

Lighting 6 

Magazines ...20-2, 30, 36, 128, 135 

Marking 2 8, 65-6 

Mechanical preparation 42 

Mending ........... .28, 30, 37-9 

Modern school library 4 

Mounts ..30, 103 

North Central Report 3 

Notes on the use of library.. 123 

Opening new books 34, 42 

Ordering 22-3 

Pamphlet boxes 30, 100 

Pamphlets 30 , 72, 99-100 

Parent-Teacher association 1 18 

Paste 38 

Permits II4 _ IS 

Pictures 72, 102-3 

Prices 22 . 4 

Public Library school branch.. 14 

Reading circle I4 6 

Record of books loaned 74-5 

Reference books.. 19, 82, 121, 133-7 
Reference cards. .85, 90, 91, 98, 132 

Reports j x 7 

Reserve books ...... . . .67, 71 



Routine of organization 25 

Rules 73, "2 

Rural school library 141 

Score card 137 

Self-government rules 112-13 

Service 106-7 

Shakespeare scheme 57 

Shelf label holders 68 

Shelf list 76-8 

Shelf list cards samples 77-8 

Shelf listing 76-7 

Shelf marking 68 

Shelving 7, 26, 28 

Sorting 31 

- Space for tables 9 

Stamping 28, 29, 43 

Standards 3, 125, 137-8 

State lists 18, 142-3 

State policies 2-3 

Story telling 146 

Student help 1 1 1 

Subject card 88-9 

Subject card sample3 93-4 

Subject headings 89-90, 101 

Supervised study 115 

Supervision 105-6 

Supplies 12-13, 27, 37-9, 76 

Tables 9 

Taking the count 74-5 

Teacher-Librarian 109-10 

Teachers' reading clubs 119 

Teachers' training department. . 141 
Teaching the use of books and 

libraries 1 19-37 

Time cards 71-2 

Title cards 88 

Title card sample 93 

Tracings 87 

Typewriting 76-7 

Use of the library. . 115, 119, 144-6 

Varnishing 35, 66 

Vertical file 12, 100 


Return to desk from which borrowed. 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 

1 _____ 

LD 21-95m-ll,'50(2877sl6)476 

V.B 66421